Natural Hazards

Vale Cigala

Valeria Cigala is originally from Italy and completed her PhD in 2017 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich. She works on explosive volcanic eruptions and related hazards. Her project focuses on investigating the control parameters influencing the ejection of tephra and she tackles the problem comparing experimental and field observations. She is actively taking part on the realization of the Blog for the Natural Hazard Division of EGU because scientific outreach is important and never enough.

Heavy metals in industrial wastewater: hazardous waste or secondary resource?

Not long ago on the blog, we have talked about natural groundwater quality triggered by geogenic factors and related hazards such as a high concentration of heavy metals. Today’s topic concerns the anthropogenic input of heavy metals into the water and how to solve its impact effectively.  Industrial processes can lead to heavy metal bearing wastewater, which is commonly treated by inefficient purification methods. Therefore, it is time to think about alternative methods for recovering the metals that would otherwise pollute the water and create a hazard for the environment. In addition, the obtainable metal resources make their recovery attractive from an economic point of view. However, efficient removal and recovery of toxic metals from industrial wastewater streams is a major challenge. To understand better the subject and the potentiality of specific water’s treatments, we interviewed two PhD students, Kai Tandon and Iphigenia Anagnostopoulos, both working in the group of Prof. Dr. Soraya Heuss-Aßbichler at LMU Munich.

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Volcanic tourism, in between fascination and hazard awareness. Episode 1: the volcanologist prospective.

This picture captures the Lascar volcano, part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. It is the most active volcano of the region. Image credit: Joselyn Arriagada-Gonzalez (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)


Volcanoes are often located in stunning and fascinating places of the world. Some volcanoes are in areas already heavily populated, like Popocatépetl in Mexico or that thanks to tourism become highly or more populated during certain times of the year, like Agung in Indonesia.

In addition to the charm, volcanoes can be and have been harmful to both lives and properties. The hazards posed by volcanoes erupting are various and can affect areas both in the vicinity and far away from the eruption. Common hazards are, for example, lava flows, pyroclastic density currents, ash fall, ejection of ballistic, lahars, volcanic gases as well as structural collapses causing landslides, and eventually, tsunamis if close to the sea or a lake.

There will be some indications, some precursors, that a volcano is going to erupt. However, the time between these signs and the eruptive event is highly variable and can range from days to months. Sometimes an eruption can happen without a clear warning and be fatal, like the Mt. Ontake eruption in Japan in 2014.

Preparedness is thus crucial: be aware of where you are, the possible hazards and how to prevent or minimize losses and accidents. Scientists from all over the world have been more and more working closely with the communities at risks from volcanic activity. Advancements in volcano monitoring help better understand the phenomena. And educational programs and emergency simulations are commonly put in place. However, how are tourists taken into account in hazard mitigation plans? How aware are tourists of the natural hazards they may encounter? Are visitor centres providing enough information? What about tour operators?

To try and answers some of these questions we interviewed a scientist working on volcanic hazard and issues related to tourism. In today post, we welcome Bradley Scott from GNS Science, New Zealand.

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Fantastic grants and where to find them, part 1.


At some point in your career, usually, sooner than later, you will need to write a grant proposal to ensure yourself a paid research position.

Funding agencies are out there waiting to receive your great and original ideas and possibly grant you some money to transform these ideas into actual science. One can spend an entire day just researching on the internet the best funding scheme. To help in this quest, we start here a list of funding schemes for geoscientists at PhD and postdoc level available in Europe, but not limited to European applicants. For each scheme, we provide a short description and a link to where to find more information: just click underlined words.

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Steaming badly: what do we know about hazardous and less known hydrothermal eruptions in volcanic environments?

Photo 1. Yellowstone National Park. The Grand Prismatic Spring is the largest hot spring in the United States, and the third largest in the world. Photo credit: David Mencin (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Volcanic eruptions are among the fascinating natural phenomena we can observe on Earth. Along with being very attractive, they are hazardous for both society and infrastructures. Eruptive styles are various and today we focus our attention on one particular type of explosive event: hydrothermal eruptions. We have interviewed Cristian Montanaro on the topic.

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