GD
Geodynamics

presentation

Get conference ready!

Get conference ready!

It’s almost time for the AGU fall meeting 2018! Are you ready? Have you prepared your schedule and set up all your important business meetings? Here are some final tips to nail your presentation and/or poster!

Nailing your presentation
The art of the 15-minute talk: how to design the best 15-minute talk
Presentation skills – 1. Voice: how to get the most out of your presentation voice
Presentation skills – 2. Speech: how to stop staying ‘uh’

Making the best poster
Poster presentation tips: how to design the best poster layout
The rainbow colour map (repeatedly) considered harmful: how to make the best scientific figures

Presentation skills – 2. Speech

Presentation skills – 2. Speech

Presenting: some people love it, some people hate it. I firmly place myself in the first category and apparently, this presentation joy translates itself into being a good – and confident – speaker. Over the years, quite a few people have asked me for my secrets to presenting (which – immediate full disclosure – I do not have) and this is the result: a running series on the EGU GD Blog that covers my own personal tips and experience in the hope that it will help someone (you?) become a better and – more importantly – more confident speaker. Last time, we discussed your presentation voice. In this second instalment, I discuss everything related to how you speak.

1. Get rid of ‘uh’

Counting the number of times a speaker says ‘uh’ during a presentation is a fun game, but ideally you would like your audience to focus on the non-uh segments of your talk. Therefore, getting rid of ‘uh’ (or any other filler word for that matter) is important. I have two main tips to get rid of ‘uh’:

Write down your speech and practice (but don’t hold on to it religiously)

Practice. Practice. And practice it again. Maybe a few more times. Almost… no: practice it again.
I am being serious here. If you know exactly what you want to say, you won’t hesitate and fill that moment of hesitation with a prolonged uuuuuhhh. The added benefit of writing down your presentation and practising it religiously is that it will help you with timing your presentation as well. I also find it helpful to read through it (instead of practising it out loud) when I am in a situation that doesn’t allow me to go into full presentation mode (on the plane to AGU for example). However, make sure to practise your presentation out loud even though you wrote it all down: thinking speed (or reading in your head) and talking speed are not the same!

If you write down your presentation, and you know exactly what you want to say, you have to take care to evade another (new) pitfall for saying ‘uh’: now that you know exactly what you want to say and how to say it most efficiently, you start saying ‘uh’ when you can’t remember the exact wording. Let it go. Writing down your speech helps you to clarify the vocabulary needed for your speech, but if you don’t say the exact sentences, just go with something else. You will have a well thought out speech anyway. Just go with the flow and try not to say ‘uh’.

The second main tip for getting rid of ‘uh’ is to

Realise that it is okay to stay silent for a while

If you forget the word you wanted to say and you need some time to think, you can take a break. You can stay silent. You don’t need to fill up the silence with ‘uh’. In fact, a break often seems more natural. Realise that you forgot something, don’t panic, take a breath, take a break (don’t eat a KitKat at this point in your presentation), and then continue when you know what to say again. Even if you don’t forget the exact words or phrasings, taking a breath and pausing in your narrative can be helpful for your audience to take a breath as well. It will seem as if your presentation is relaxed: you are not rushing through 50 slides in 12 minutes. You are prepared, you are in control, you can even take a break to take a breath.

2. Speed

A lot of (conference) presentations will have a fixed time. At the big conferences, like EGU and AGU, you get 12 minutes and not a second more or less. Well, of course you can talk longer than 12 minutes, but this will result in less (if any) time for questions.

I don’t think the conveners will kill you, but don’t pin me down on it

And on top of that, everyone (well, me at the very least) will be annoyed at you for not sticking to the time.

So: sticking to your time limit is important!

But how can you actually do this? Well, there are a few important factors:
1. Preparation: know exactly what you want to say (we will cover this more in a later instalment of this series)
2. The speed at which you speak.

We will be discussing the latter point in this blog entry. For me (and many other people), I know I can stick to the rule of “one slide per minute”, but I always have a little buffer in that I count the title slide as a slide as well. So, my 12-minute long presentation would have 12 slides in total (including the title slides). This actually spreads my 12 minutes over 11 scientific slides, so I can talk a little bit longer about each slide. It also gives me piece of mind to know that I have a bit of extra time. However, the speed at which you talk might be completely different. Therefore, the most important rule about timing your presentations is:

Knowing how fast you (will) speak

I always practice my short presentations a lot. If they are 30 minutes or longer, I like to freewheel with the one slide per minute rule. But for shorter presentations, I require a lot of practice. I always time every presentation attempt and make a point of finishing each attempt (even if the first part goes badly). Otherwise you run the risk of rehearsing the first part of your presentation very well, and kind of forgetting about the second part. When I time my presentation during practice, I always speak too long. For a 12 minute presentation, I usually end up at the 13.5 minute mark. However, I know that when I speak in front of an audience, I (subconsciously?) speed up my speech, so when I time 13.5 minutes, I know that my actual presentation will be a perfect 12 minutes.

The only way to figure out how you change or start to behave in front of an audience is by simply giving a lot of presentations. Try to do that and figure out whether you increase or decrease the speed of your speech during your talk. Take note and remember it for the next time you time your presentation. In the end, presenting with skill and confidence is all about knowing yourself.

3. Articulation and accent

There are as many accents to be heard at a conference as there are scientists talking. Everyone has there own accent, articulation, (presentation) voice, etc. This means that

You should not feel self-conscious about your accent

Some accents are stronger than others and may be more difficult for others to follow. Native speakers are by no means necessarily better speakers and depending on whom you ask, their accent might also not be better than anyone else’s.
Of course your accent might become an issue if people can’t understand you. You can try and consider the following things to make yourself understandable for a big audience:
1. Articulate well.
2. Adapt the speed at which you talk

Some languages are apparently faster than others. French is quite fast for example, whereas (British) English is a slower language. You have to take this into account when switching languages. If you match the pace of the language you are speaking, your accent will be less noticeable, because you avoid any ingrained rythm patterns that are language specific. Then you might still have your accent shine through in your pronunciation of the words, but it will not shine through in the rhythm of your speech.
In addition, you can consider asking a native speaker for help if you are unsure of how to pronounce certain words. Listening or watching many English/American/Australian tv series/films/youtube will also help with your pronunciation.

And that, ladies and gentlemen, is about everything I have to say on the matter of speech. You should now have full control over your presentation voice and all the actual words you are going to say. Next time, we go one step further and discuss your posture during the presentation and your movements.

Presentation skills – 1. Voice

Presentation skills – 1. Voice

Presenting: some people love it, some people hate it. I firmly place myself in the first category and apparently, this presentation joy translates itself into being a good – and confident – speaker. Over the years, quite a few people have asked me for my secrets to presenting (which – immediate full disclosure – I do not have) and this is the result: a running series on the EGU GD Blog that covers my own personal tips and experience in the hope that it will help someone (you?) become a better and – more importantly – more confident speaker. In this first instalment, I discuss everything regarding your voice.

Disregarding the content of your talk (I can’t really help you with that), mastering your voice is an important first step towards presenting well and presenting with (or feigning) confidence. An important thing to always remember, is that your audience doesn’t know how you feel. If you come across as confident, people will perceive you as such, even though you are not necessarily feeling confident yourself. With time, I promise that you will in the end feel at ease and confident in front of an audience.
Using your voice optimally is, obviously very important: it is the one thing people will have to listen to in order to get your message. Therefore, knowing how to use your voice is essential to presenting well. And note that your ‘presenting voice’ doesn’t necessarily need to match up with your ‘normal voice’.

1. Volume

First things first: make sure all people can hear you wherever they are in the room! This is a very basic tip, but one of the most important ones as well: if people can’t hear you, it doesn’t matter how well you present, they won’t understand what you’re talking about, because they literally won’t be able to hear it. Depending on your voice, this will result in one of the following adjustments to get into proper ‘presentation voice mode’:
• You will raise your voice to make sure everyone in the back can clearly hear you. I always do this myself, so my ‘presentation voice’ is always louder than my more natural, soft everyday-talking voice.
• You will lower your voice, so that the people in the first row don’t get blown away: you don’t want your voice to be so loud as to be a nuisance for people sitting close by.

Make sure your voice carries across the room

To test how loudly you need to speak, you can ‘scout’ the room beforehand with a friend. Make sure they stay at the back of the room, and walk up to the front of the room and start talking in your ‘presentation voice’. Can your friend clearly hear everything you say? Then you are good to go. Otherwise, you can adjust and test the volume of your voice according to the comments of your friend. No time/opportunity for a test round of your voice volume? Start your presentation with ‘Can everybody hear me?’ and you’ll soon find out how loud you need to speak.

Help! There is a microphone: now what?!

If there is a microphone available, you should refrain from using your loud presentation voice, because no one wants to go home after a conference with hearing damage. Often, you can test out the microphone shortly before your presentation. Make use of that opportunity, so that you don’t face any surprises! Also, if there is a stationary microphone (i.e., not a headset), make sure to always talk into to the microphone. Adjust it to your height and make sure your voice is optimally picked up by the microphone. It is very tempting to start looking at your slides and turn your head, but that means your voice isn’t optimally picked up by the microphone, which will result in the fact that people in the back can’t hear you! If you alternate speaking into the microphone and turning your head, the sound of your voice during your presentation becomes a rollercoaster of soft-loud-soft-loud. This is very annoying to listen to, so try to avoid this! Having said that, I find this to be one of the hardest things ever, because I’m not used to talking into a stationary microphone… Let’s say practice makes perfect, right?

2. Tonality

It is incredibly boring to listen to someone who speaks in a dull, monotonous voice. No matter how interesting the content of your talk, if you can’t get the excitement and passion for your research across in your voice, chances are that people will start falling asleep during your presentation. And we all know how hard it is to stay awake during even the most animated of presentations, just because of irritating things like jetlag (or trying to finish your own presentation in the dead of the night on the previous evening). Therefore, I suggest practising the tonality of your voice.

Speak with emotion

If you want your audience to feel excited about your research or motivated to collaborate with you, you need to convey those emotions in your voice. Think about what you want your audience to feel and how you can convey that emotion with your voice. For example, if you want people to get excited, you can increase the pitch of your voice to indicate excitement.

Emphasise the right words

Another way of getting rid of a monotonous voice is putting emphasis on the right words, to make your point. Obviously the effect is negated when you overuse this method, but when used in moderation, you can use emphasis on words to get your message across more easily.
You can practice the tonality of your voice all the time: try reading a book out loud, tell a story about your weekend in an animated way, incorporate it in your day-to-day conversations, etc. Try to let your tonality come across as natural (and not over the top) and engaging. Recording your talks and listening back to them or asking comments from friends/family can help when you practice your presentation.

3. Pitch

The pitch of your voice should be pleasant for the audience. Now, of course you can’t (and shouldn’t) change your voice completely, but a very high-pitched, squeaky voice can be very annoying to listen to and a very deep voice can be hard to understand. So, depending on your voice and on what you think people find pleasant, you could consider slightly altering the pitch of your voice.

Don’t worry if your voice gets squeaky, because there is an easy way around it

My voice (and everyone else’s) gets really high-pitched and squeaky when I get excited and presentations make me very excited. So, I always make sure that my presentation voice has an ever-so-slightly lower pitch than my normal speaking voice (and doesn’t get near the high-pitched excitement voice). By lowering the pitch of my voice I (think I) am more clearly understandable and if I do get excited and my pitch increases due to the emotion in my voice, it is still at a very manageable and pleasant pitch, so no-one gets a headache on my watch.

Bearing these tips in mind, you can start honing your perfect presentation voice. Next time, we will start using our voice and tackle the subject of speech!

The art of the 15-minute talk

The art of the 15-minute talk

We’ve all attended conferences with those dreaded 15-minute talks and we have no problem picking out which talks were amazing and which talks were abysmal. However, when it comes to our own talks, it’s hard to judge them, find out how they can be improved or break away from long-established habits (such as our layout or talking pace). This week, Matthew Herman, postdoc at the Tectonophysics research group at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, guides you towards your best 15-minute talk yet!

At some point in your career as an Earth Scientist, you will hopefully have a chance to give a 15-minute talk at a meeting, a colloquium series, or simply in your lab group. This provides a great opportunity to advertise your hard work to your colleagues in an amount of time that is well within a human attention span. Ultimately, your goal in this talk is to effectively communicate your discovery to your audience. In the process, you get to explain the importance of your field, pose a crucial research question in that field, demonstrate cutting-edge analyses and applications, and, finally, provide an answer to that initial research question, sometimes for the very first time.

Despite all the latent potential for a 15-minute talk to captivate and teach the audience, many of these presentations end up being uninformative. I do not intend this as a judgment regarding the significance or quality of the science. I have seen incomprehensible talks from people whose research is crucial to our understanding of the Earth system. Alternatively, I have seen talks presenting incremental scientific advancements that were truly enlightening. But from all the diverse presentations I have seen, there are common elements that either dramatically improved or reduced my understanding of the subject matter. My aim here is to provide what I think are some of these key characteristics that make up a really excellent talk, so that next time you have the opportunity to present, you will inspire your audience.

I think there are two general things to keep in mind for your 15-minute talk: (a) you have limited time with your audience, and (b) the expertise of your audience can vary a lot. This means that you should design a presentation that fits your extensive understanding into a brief window and tailor the details for the particular audience that will be attending. If this makes it seem like it will take time and effort to construct an effective talk, that is because it is true! Even if you have a well-received publication, simply transferring figures, analyses, and interpretations from the paper into your talk is almost guaranteed to lead to an ineffective presentation – it will probably be too long, too technical, and too difficult to see from the back of the room. If you really want your audience to concentrate on your work for the full 15 minutes, take the time (potentially up to a few weeks) to craft a great talk. And one more thing: you really should practice your talk ahead of time. Actually, I cannot emphasize this point enough: PRACTICE.

Note: If you are short on time right now, I have included a checklist at the end to summarize the main points.

How long?

Imagine: you are in the audience and the end of the talk is not in sight. You shift in your seat uncomfortably as you glance at your watch. The speaker does not appear to notice the amount of time since they started, but you definitely do: 14:30… 15:00… 15:30. Finally, two full minutes after the end of the scheduled time slot, the speaker asks if there are any questions, but of course there is no time for that. Many otherwise good talks have been ruined for me by the presenters going into overtime. All I can now remember about them is by how much they exceeded the final bell. As a speaker, you have 15 minutes – choose a topic and present it in the allotted time frame. In fact, target your talk for 12-13 minutes so your audience can ask questions at the end.

This, and that, and these…

The detailed structure of the talk is flexible, but should probably contain the following items: background/motivation (Why should we, the audience, care?); a research question or hypothesis (What is being tested?); observations, models, and analysis (How is the research question being answered?); and interpretations and conclusions (GIVE US THE ANSWERS!).

i. Background
Try to avoid dwelling on the background for too long. I know many of us (myself included) enjoy pedantically explaining the rich history of our field leading up to the present day. But you do not have the time in a 15-minute talk. As you are constructing your presentation, you should budget no more than 2-3 minutes at the start to establish the context for your research problem. At that point, your audience should be oriented and ready to be amazed by your results.

Example of an introduction/background slide

ii. Research Question
Do not assume that your research question or hypothesis is obvious to everyone. People come to talks for a lot of different reasons; sometimes they are experts in the field, but other times they saw a keyword in your title or abstract, or maybe there were no other interesting sessions. In any case, it is likely that a good percentage of your audience does not know what specifically you are testing if you do not tell them. After setting up the background, verbally or on the screen state your research question or hypothesis.

iii. Observations, Models, and Analysis
This will be the bulk of your presentation. Tailoring your 15-minute talk for your specific audience means you will want to use just the right amount of technical terminology. You should assume some foundational level of knowledge because there is no way to define every term and present the complete theory for your research. But for the most part, I think you should try to minimize technical jargon (particularly uncommon acronyms) in talks. If and when you need to use a term repeatedly, then take 15-30 of your precious seconds to concisely explain the concept, ideally without patronizing or condescending. [Did I mention this was a difficult balance?] Incidentally, explaining a concept has the added benefit of forcing you to understand the concept sufficiently that you can distill its definition into a compact form for your listeners.

The precise minimum level of knowledge you assume for your audience depends on the setting. In the large lecture hall of an international meeting like the EGU General Assembly, the audience may be weighted towards less experience in your field, whereas a special meeting focused on your subject area will likely have a higher percentage of experts.

A related point is that you should avoid all but the most straightforward equations. The reality is that any audience member who does not already understand the equation is not going to understand it from your talk. There is not enough time, and the medium is not amenable to higher level math. Simple equations with a couple variables are okay, but anything with multiple terms, powers, derivatives, etc. are a waste of time.

iv. Interpretations and Conclusions
Honestly, most people are pretty good at this part. This is the most fun and exciting aspect of the talk, plus it means the end is near. A couple minor pieces of advice: (a) make sure you have drawn a clear path from the background through the analyses and into the interpretations, with the common thread being answering your research question; and (b) I think it is best to limit the number of conclusions to 3-4 (consider this in the preliminary design stage of the talk as well!).

Example of a results slide

Good looks matter

I try to follow the advice of the great Jim Henson when it comes to designing the look for my talks: “Simple is good.” I will not harp on making figures, because many other people have discussed how to design good ones. In a nutshell: make them big, use good color schemes and large fonts, and keep them uncluttered. Resist the urge to copy figures straight from papers to your talk. You will probably need to simplify a figure from the published version in order to make it optimal for your talk. Sometimes you just need to design and produce a totally new figure. In fact, making figures is where I spend at least 65% of my time when I am preparing a talk.

In terms of slide layout, use the whole slide. Borders, icons, and backgrounds can be pretty flourishes, but they take up valuable real estate. Every centimeter you use for a border is a centimeter you can no longer use for a making a figure nice and big. And remember there will be people, some with poor eyesight, in the back of the room. As on figures, limit the amount of text. When you do need labels or bullet points, use a classic, simple font (I will scream if I see Comic Sans one more time…) in a large size – I typically use no smaller than 24-point font Helvetica.

Closing remarks

Many of my suggestions are more like guidelines than hard rules. I enjoy seeing creative and innovative presentations. As long as you give yourself enough time to craft an excellent presentation, then take time to practice it in front of friends, it will turn out well. Hopefully we will all see a large collection of great talks in the next few meetings. See you there!


Checklist
Remember: the goal of the talk is for your audience to understand your science!

Preparation
• Take time (up to several weeks) to construct your presentation
• Practice before the date of your talk, if possible in front of a test audience

Structure
• Target talk length for 12-13 minutes (do not go over 14!)
• Limit background or introductory information to 2-3 minutes
• Explicitly state research question
• Link background, analysis, and interpretations to research question
• Limit conclusions to ≤ 4

Scientific Content
• Choose technical jargon at level appropriate for audience
• Define critical terminology in 30 seconds or less
• Limit acronyms
• Avoid complex equations
• Avoid tables

Visual Content
• Fill space on slide, especially with figures
• Make thin frames to not waste precious room
• Choose large font sizes (≥ 24 pt) in a standard font
• Adjust figures from published version
• Check figure color contrasts (avoid blue/black, yellow/white)
• Use perceptually linear color palettes (no rainbow!)
• Avoid cartoons, animations, and sounds

General Life Advice
• Use common sense (e.g., do not include pictures from the bar in your talk)