CR
Cryospheric Sciences

Editor post

Image of the Week — Climate change and disappearing ice

The first week of the Climate Change summit in Bonn (COP 23  for those in the know) has been marked by Syria’s decision to sign the Paris Accord, the international agreement that aims at tackling climate change. This decision means that the United States would become the only country outside the agreement if it were to complete the withdrawal process vowed by President Trump.

In this context, it has become a tradition for this blog to use the  United Nations climate talks as an excuse to remind us all of some basic facts about climate change and its effect on the part we are most interested in here: the cryosphere! This year we have decided to showcase a few compelling animations, as we say “a picture is sometimes worth a thousand words”…


Arctic sea ice volume

Daily Arctic sea ice volume is estimated by the PIOMAS reconstruction from 1979-present [Credit: Ed Hawkins]

The volume of Arctic sea ice has declined over the last 4 decades and reached a record low in September 2012. Shrinking sea ice has major consequences on the climate system: by decreasing the albedo of the Arctic surface, by affecting the global ocean circulation, etc.

More information about Arctic sea ice:

Land ice losses in Antarctica and Greenland

Change in land ice mass since 2002 (Right: Greenland, Left: Antarctica). Data is measured by NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. [Credit: Zack Labe]

Both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets have been losing ice since 2002, contributing to global sea-level rise (see previous post about sea level) .  An ice loss of 100 Gt raises the  sea level by ~0.28 mm (see explanations  here).

More information about ice loss from the ice sheets:

 

The cause: CO2 emissions and global warming

Finally we could not close this post without showing  how the concentration of carbon dioxide have evolved  over the same period and how this has led to global warming.

CO₂ concentration and global mean temperature 1958 – present. [Credit:Kevin Pluck]

More information about CO2 and temperature change

  • Global Temperature | NASA: Climate Change and Global Warming
  • Carbon dioxide | NASA: Climate Change and Global Warming

More visualisation resources

Visualisation resources | Climate lab

 

Edited by Clara Burgard

Image of the Week – The true size of Greenland

Fig. 1: Greenland is slightly bigger than  Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom together [Credit: The True Size].

Greenland is a critical part of the world, which is regularly covered on this blog, because it hosts the second largest ice body on Earth – the Greenland Ice Sheet. This ice sheet, along with its small peripheral ice caps, contributes by 43% to current sea-level rise.

However, despite being the world’s largest island Greenland, appears disproportionately large on the most common world maps (Fig. 2). Our new image of the week takes a look at the true size of Greenland…


Fig. 2: World (Mercator) map used by many online mapping applications. [Credit: D. Strebe/Wikimedia commons]

How big is Greenland?

We could simply tell you that Greenland stretches over ~2 million km². For most people, this figure would however not speak for itself.   Luckily, The True Size is a web application that comes to our rescue by enabling us to compare the true size of all the countries in the world.

As we can see in Fig. 1, Greenland is in fact only slightly bigger than Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom together.

Similarly, Greenland is also (Fig. 3):

  • roughly the size of the Democratic Republic of Congo

  • could fit 1.4 times in India

  • 4.2 times smaller than than the United States

  • could fit 3.5 times in Australia

Fig. 3: Greenland vs Democratic Republic of Congo, Australia, the United States and India. [Credit: The True Size]

 Greenland is therefore big but not as big as what is suggested by the most common maps (Fig. 2). As a result, one can therefore wonder why the most popular world maps distort the size of the countries.

All maps are wrong but some are useful

To map the world, cartographers must project a curved surface on a flat piece of paper. There are different approaches to do so but all distort the earth surface in some ways. For instance, conformal projections preserve angles and shapes but change the size of the countries, whereas equal-area projections conserve the sizes but distort the shapes. As a result, a map projection that suits all purposes does not exist. Instead, the choice of the projection will depend on the use of the map.

Fig. 4: Mercator cylindrical projection [Credit: National Atlas of the United States]

The most popular projection, the Mercator projection (Fig. 2),  is used by many online mapping applications (e.g. google maps, OpenStreetMap, etc.). In Mercator maps, the Earth’s surface is projected on a cylinder that surrounds the globe (Fig. 4). The cylinder is then unrolled to produce a flat map that preserves the shapes of landmasses but tends to stretch countries towards the poles. This is why the size of Greenland is exaggerated in many world maps.

Why does google map use the Mercator projection then?

If Google Maps and other web mapping services rely on the Mercator projection, it is not to make countries at high latitudes appear bigger, but, because those tools are mainly intended to be used at local scales. The fact that the Mercator projection preserves angles and shapes therefore ensures minimal distortions at the city-level: two perpendicular streets will always appear perpendicular in Google Maps. This is not necessarily the case at high latitudes with projections that preserves areas (as can be seen here).

Interested in this topic? Then, you might enjoy this video !

Image of the Week – See sea ice from 1901!

Image of the Week – See sea ice from 1901!

The EGU Cryosphere blog has reported on several studies of Antarctic sea ice (for example, here and here) made from high-tech satellites, but these records only extend back to the 1970s, when the satellite records began. Is it possible to work out what sea ice conditions were like before this time? The short answer is YES…or this would be a very boring blog post! Read on to find out how heroic explorers of the past are helping to inform the future.


During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (1897–1917), expeditions to the “South” by explorers such as Scott and Shackleton involved a great deal of time aboard ship. Our image of the week shows one such ship – the ship of the German Erich von Drygalsk – captured from a hot air balloon in 1901.

These ships spent many months navigating paths through sea ice and keeping detailed logs of their observations along the way. Climate scientists at the University of Reading, UK have used these logs to reconstruct sea-ice extent in Antarctica at this time – providing key information to extend satellite observations of sea ice around the continent.

Why do we want to know about sea-ice extent 100 years ago?

In the last three decades, satellite records of Antarctic sea-ice extent have shown an increase, in contrast to a rapid decrease in Arctic sea-ice extent over the same period (see our previous post). It is not clear if this, somewhat confusing, trend is unusual or has been seen before and without a longer record, it is not possible to say. This limits how well the sensitivity of sea ice to climate change can be understood and how well climate models that predict future ice extent can be validated.

To help understand this increase in Antarctic sea-ice extent; records of ice composition and nature from ships log books recorded between 1897–1917 have been collated and compared to present-day ice conditions (1989–2014).

What does the study show?

The comparison between sea ice extent in the Heroic Age and today shows that the area of sea ice around Antarctica has only changed in size by a very small amount in the last ~100 years. Except in the Weddell sea, where ice extent was 1.71o (~80 km) further North in the Heroic Age, conditions comparable to present-day were seen around most of Antarctica. This suggests that Antarctic sea-ice extent is much less sensitive to the effects of climate change than that Arctic sea ice. One of the authors of the study, Jonny Day, summarises these findings in the video below:

References and Further Reading

Planet Press

planet_pressThis is modified version of a “planet press” article written by Bárbara Ferreira and originally published on 26th November 2016 on the EGU website .

It is also available in Dutch, Hungarian, Serbian, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese! All translated by volunteers – why not consider volunteering to translate an article and learn something interesting along the way?

 

Edited by Sophie Berger

Image of the Week – Fifty shades of snow

Image of the Week – Fifty shades of snow

When I think of snow, I tend to either think about the bright white ski slopes in the mountains or the large white areas in the Arctic. However, natural phenomena can lead to colorful snow. Our Image of the Week shows snow can be green! Snow can also turn orange, pinkish, grey and even yellow… But where do these different shades of snow come from?


White

The most common color of snow is white (see Fig. 2). Snow generally appears white when it is pure snow, which means that it is only an aggregate of ice and snow crystals. When sunlight meets the snow surface, all frequencies of the sunlight are reflected several times in different directions by the crystals, leading to a white color of the snowpack.

 

Fig. 2: Fresh powder snow, snow crystals [Credit: Introvert, Wikimedia Commons]

 

 

If other particles or organisms are present in the snow though, they can alter the color of the snow’s surface…

Green

Snow can obtain a green color if it is host to an algal bloom (see our Image of the Week). Depending on the wetness of the snow, sunlight conditions and nutrient availability, unicellular snow algae can develop and thrive on the snow. Although it is not clear exactly how fast snow algae grow, algae populations from temperate regions have been found to grow sixteen-fold in one day! As the algae population increases, the snow turns green as the algae reflect the green light back.

 

Red/Pink

The pink-red-colored snow, commonly called “watermelon snow”, can also be caused by snow algae (see Fig. 3). The snow algae responsible for the pink color are similar to the ones responsible for green color. However, these algae use pigments of red color to protect their cells from high sunlight and UV radiation damage during the summer. Just like how we use sunscreen to protect our skin! The red pigments come either from iron tannin compounds or, more commonly, from orange to red-pigmented lipids.

There is also another origin for pink snow: Penguin poo! Indeed, the krill they eat contain a lot of carotenoids that give their poo a red color.

Fig. 3: Watermelon snow streaks [Credit: Wikimedia Commons].

 

Yellow

Yellow snow is the result of a different process (and no, it is not from Penguin pee!). Fig. 4 shows the Sierra Nevada in Spain before and after dust transported from the Sahara settled down on the snow-covered mountain tops. The dust was lifted up from the Sahara desert and blown north before ending its trip in Spain.

Fig. 4: Snow-covered Sierra Nevadas (Spain) before and after a dust deposition event [Credit: modified from NASA’s Earth Observatory]

 

Do these colors have an influence on snow cover?

In all cases of colored snow, the snow surface is darker than before. The darker surface absorbs more sunlight than a white surface, which causes the snow to melt faster… Therefore, although it looks artistic, colored snow is not necessarily healthy for the snow itself…

 

So, if you don’t like winter because everything is boring and white, just think about the variety of snow colors and try to look out for these special types! 🙂

 

Further reading

Edited by David Rounce

Image of the Week — High altitudes slow down Antarctica’s warming

Elevations in Antarctica. The average altitude is about 2,500m. [Credit: subset of Fig 5 from Helm et al (2014)]

When it comes to climate change, the Arctic and the Antarctic are poles apart. At the north of the planet, temperatures are increasing twice as fast as in the rest of the globe, while warming in Antarctica has been milder. A recent study published in Earth System Dynamics shows that the high elevation of Antarctica might help explain why the two poles are warming at different speeds.


The Arctic vs the Antarctic

At and around the North Pole, in the Arctic, the ice is mostly frozen ocean water, also known as sea ice, which is only a few meters thick. In the Antarctic, however, the situation is very different: the ice forms not just over sea, but over a continental land mass with rugged terrain and high mountains. The average height in Antarctica is about 2,500 metres, with some mountains rising as high as 4,900 metres.

A flat Antarctica would warm faster

Mount Jackson in the Antarctic Peninsula reaches an altitude of 3,184 m  [Credit: euphro via Flickr]

Marc Salzmann, a scientist working at the University of Leipzig in Germany, decided to use a computer model to find out what would happen if the elevation in Antarctica was more like in the Arctic. He discovered that, if Antarctica were flat, there would be more warm air flowing from the equator to the poles, which would make the Antarctic warm faster.

As Antarctica warms and ice melts, it is actually getting flatter as time goes by, even if very slowly. As such, over the next few centuries or thousands of years, we could expect warming in the region to speed up.

Reference/further reading

planet_pressThis is modified version of a “planet press” article written by Bárbara Ferreira and originally published on 18 May 2017 on the EGU website
(a Serbian version is also available, why not considering adding a new language to the list? 🙂 )

Image of the Week – A rather splendid round-up of CryoEGU!

Image of the Week – A rather splendid round-up of CryoEGU!

The 2017 edition of the EGU general assembly was a great success overall and for the cryospheric division in particular. We were for instance thrilled to see that two of the three winning photos of the EGU Photo contest featured ice! To mark the occasion we are delighted to use as our image of this week,  one of these pictures, which  shows an impressive rapid in the Pite River in northern Sweden. Congratulations to Michael Grund for capturing this stunning shot.  You can find all photos entered in the contest on imaggeo — the EGU’s  open access geosciences image repository.

But being the most photogenic division (at least the ice itself is…not sure about the division team itself!) was not our only cryo-achievement during the conference. Read on to get the most of (cryo)EGU 2017!


EGU 2017 in figures

  • 17,399 abstracts in the programme (including 1179 to cryo-related sessions)
  • 14,496 scientists from 107 countries attending the conference
  • 11,312 poster, 4,849 oral and 1,238 PICO presentations
  • 649 scientific sessions and 88 short courses
  • 53% of early-career scientists

Polar Science Career Panel

During the week we teamed up with APECS to put on a Polar Science Career Panel. Our five panellists, from different backgrounds and job fields, engaged in a lively discussion with over 50 session attendees. With many key topics being frankly and honesty discussed by our panelists, who had some great comments and advice to offer. Highlights of the discussion can be found on the @EGU_CR twitter feed with #CareerPanel.

At the end we asked each panellist to come up with some final words of advice for early-career scientists, which were:

  • There is no right and wrong, ask other people and see what you like
  • Remember you can shape your own job
  • Take chances! Even if you are likely to fail and think outside the box
  • Remember that you are a whole human being… not only a scientist and use all your skills
  • And last but not least… come and work at Carbon Brief (thanks Robert McSweeney!!)

However, the most memorable quotation of the entire panel is arguably from Kerim Nisancioglu :

Social media

One of the things the EGU Cryosphere team has been recognised for is its great social media presence. We tweeted away pre-EGU with plenty of advice, tips and information about events during the week and also made sure to keep our followers up-to-date during the week.
If it is not yet the case, please consider following us on twitter and/or facebook to keep updated with the latest news about the cryosphere division, the EGU or any other interesting cryo-related news!

We need YOU for the EGU cryosphere division

Conferences are usually a great way to meet new people but did you know that getting involved with the outreach activities of the division is another way?

Each division has an ECS (early-career scientist) representative and a team to go with that and the Cryosphere division is one of the most active. Our new team of early-career scientists for 2017/18 includes some well known faces and some who are new to the division this year:

Nanna Karlsson : outgoing ECS representative and incoming coordinator for posters and PICOs awards

Emma Smith : incoming ECS representative and outgoing co-chief editor of the  cryoblog

Sophie Berger: chief-editor of the cryoblog and incoming outreach officer

Clara Burgard : incoming co-chief editor the cryoblog

 

 

 

We also have many more people (who aren’t named above) involved in the blog and social media team AND the good news is that we are looking for new people to either run our social media accounts and/or contribute regularly to this “award winning” cryoblog. Please get in touch with Emma Smith (ECS Representative and former blog editor) or Sophie Berger (Chief Blog Editor and Outreach Officer) if you would like to get involved in any aspect of the EGU Cryosphere team. No experience is necessary just enthusiasm and a love of bad puns!

And here is your “Save the Date” for EGU 2018 – which will be held between 8th – 13th April 2018.

Co-authored by Emma Smith and Sophie Berger

Image of the Week — We’re heading for Vienna

Image of the Week — We’re heading for Vienna
Tatata taaa tatatatata Tatata taaa tatatatatatatata
We’re heading for Vienna (Vienna)
And still we stand tall
‘Cause maybe they’ve seen us (seen us)
And welcome us all, yeah
With so many miles left to go
And things to be found (to be found)
I’m sure that we’ll all miss that so
it’s the … 
…congratulations, you’ve recognise the song…..it is the Final Countdown (slightly adapted!)

With the EGU general assembly starting in two days only, we hope that your presentations are almost ready that you haven’t forgotten to include in your programme all the cool stuff listed in our cryo-guide!

 

However, if you don’t have time to read it all, please make sure you’ve heard of these 3 events :
  1. the pre-icebreaker meet up on Sunday 23rd from 16:00 aida (close to Stefanplatz)
  2. the Cryoblog lunch on Tuesday 25th 12:15 in front of the entrance.
    If you like this blog, are curious about it and would like to contribute to it  — directly and/or indirectly — please come and meet us on Tuesday (for more information please email sberger@ulb.ac.be or emma.smith@awi.de)
  3. the cryo night out on Thursday 27th from 19:30 at Wieden Braü

 

See you in Vienna!

PS: We take no responsibility for anyone who finds they have Final Countdown stuck in their head all week! (♪ Tatata taaa tatatatata Tatata taaa tatatatatatatata ♫)

Edited by Emma Smith

A brief guide to navigating EGU 2017!

A brief guide to navigating EGU 2017!

Are you going to the EGU General Assembly in Vienna next week? If so, read on for a quick guide to navigating the week: Where to start, what to see and how to meet people and enjoy yourself! After all, the meeting is as much about the opportunities meet scientists from all over the world as it is about the science itself.


How on Earth do I know what is going on?!

The EGU General Assembly is a massive meeting with many parallel session, short courses, medal lectures and much more. So how do you know what is going on and when, and how can you effectively keep track of it all? The simplest way is to use the online EGU program – it has options to browse sessions of interest chronologically or by discipline. You can simply click on a session or an individual presentation to add it to your personal programme. You can then view your personal program online, print it as a PDF or if you have a smartphone you can also use the EGU2017 mobile app to keep track of your personal program on the go – scan the QR code to download it or click here from your smartphone.

Don’t forget to keep track of the twitter hastag #EGU17 to see what is happening on a second by second basis and also the #CryoEGU17 hashtag for up-to-date cryosphere news.


Short courses

Short courses at EGU are designed to give you an insight into a certain area or topic and cover all sorts of subjects and skills. There are many courses running at EGU this year – we have highlighted a few below, but be sure to check out the full list in the online program. Short courses provide a great chance to learn about a topic, skill or piece of software that has been on your to do list, so why not drop by and meet the experts who have kindly agreed to participate and share their knowledge?

How to navigate EGU: tips & tricks

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 08:30–10:00,  Room -2.31

Held first thing on Monday morning, this could be just the session you need to get your week off to a productive start!

Quantarctica

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 13:30–15:00, Room -2.31

Are you working on Antarctica data and getting to grips with GIS? Then this course is for you! The User Workshop is aimed at beginning and intermediate GIS users and Antarctic researchers interested in learning how to integrate, analyze, and present their own research data with the free, open-source, cross-platform QGIS software. Participants should install and test the latest version of the Quantarctica package on their laptops prior to arriving at the workshop.

Crashing the Cryosphere

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 15:30–17:00, Room -2.16

This is one to tell your cryo-curious friends from other divisions about!  We are inviting scientists from all areas to join us in “gate-crashing” the Cryosphere Division and learn about how topics in cryospheric science are relevant to their research. During the short course, four cryosphere experts will introduce their research, giving you the background to venture further into cryospheric topics during the rest of the meeting.

  • Keynote Intro: Olaf Eisen (The AWI, DE and head of EGU Cryosphere Division)
  • Ice-Ocean interaction: Inga Koszalka (GEOMAR, Kiel, DE)
  • The Arctic Atmosphere : John Prytherch (MISU, Stockholm, SE)
  • Avalanches: Thierry Faug (Irstea, FR)
  • GIA/Solid Earth: Valentina Barletta (DTU, DK)

Communicating Climate Change – blogging as a group

When and Where: Wed, 26 Apr, 13:30–15:00, Room -2.85

Blogs are a great way to communicate your science, but where do you start? This interactive short course will begin with an introduction from Mathew Reeve, founder of ClimateSnack. It will then be over to you to get some practice experience at editing a blog post – turning an awful draft into a pleasant and clear blog post. Please bring a pen and paper.

Successful strategies to design, develop and write a scientific paper

When and Where: Wed, 26 Apr, 17:30–19:00, Room N2

An essential part of a career in research is publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals. This means responding to reviews of your own work and reviewing the work of other scientists. In this short course you will get the chance to learn how to navigate the review process. The course will start with some advice, tip and tricks from Benjamin Rabe (Researcher, AWI, Germany), Julienne Stroeve (Senior Research Scientist, NSIDC, USA), Tom Coulthard (Professor of Physical Geography, University of Hull, UK) and Paul Cumine (Publisher, Geophysics and Oil & Gas Journals, Elsevier Ltd., UK) before a panel discussion to allow you to get answers to those burning questions you may have!

Polar Science Career Panel (EGU Cryosphere and APECS)

When and Where: Thu, 27 Apr, 15:30–17:00, Room -2.16

Many early career scientists come to EGU looking for inspiration to take the next step in their careers. There are so many opportunities both academic and elsewhere that it can be daunting to know where to start looking and what the options are. Join us for a panel discussion about everything to do with life post-polar-PhD and expand your ideas about where you might go next. Our panelists are:

  • Felicity Liggins (Climate Scientist and Outreach Program Manager, Met Office, UK)
  • Robert McSweeney (Science Writer, Carbon Brief)
  • Lindsey Nicholson (PostDoc, Uni. Innsbruck, Austria)
  • Kerim Nisancioglu (Prof. Of Earth Sciences, Uni. Bergen, Norway)
  • Wiebke Schubotz (Project Coordinator of HD(CP)², Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany)


Social event for Early Career Cryosphere Scientists!

So you have an idea of what scientific stuff is going on, but there is, of course, another important aspect to any conference…. they are a great place to socialise! However, it can be very daunting to know how and where to meet people at such a large meeting. This year the EGU Cryosphere team are organising two social events joint with APECS as well as a lunch for anyone who is interested in joining our blog team – also don’t forget the March for Science taking place on Saturday the 22nd April.

Pre-Icebreaker Meet Up

The conference icebreaker can be a daunting experience to attend alone but it is a great event to go along to. We are organising a friendly pre-icebreaker meet up for cryospheric ECSs on Sunday 23rd from 16:00We will meet at a yet-to-be-determined cafe in Vienna, have a chat, do some networking, have a cake and then head to the EGU conference centre together in time for the icebreaker. Keep your eyes on the Facebook event for more details!

Cryo Night Out!

On Thursday evening (27th), after the Polar Science Career Panel there will be a joint APECS and EGU Cryosphere division night out. We will be leaving from the conference centre after the panel session (Room -2.16) and heading for Wieden Braü for food and drinks, you can walk down with us as a group or meet there at 19:30. If you would like to eat please fill out the Facebook poll to give us an idea of numbers! Hopefully see plenty of faces old and new there 😀

EGU Cryosphere Bloggers Lunch

An informal lunch meeting for anyone interested in getting involved in the EGU Cryosphere blog on Tuesday 25th. Meet in front of the main entrance at 12:15 and we will decide on where to go depending on the weather. Please email the editors Emma (emma.smith@awi.de) or Sophie (sberger@ulb.ac.be) if you want to come along but aren’t sure who to look for. As an extra incentive Sophie will be bringing some Belgian chocolate!!

Ice Core Young Scientist (ICYS) social

Early-career scientists with an interest in ice cores are invited to join the Ice Core Young Scientists (ICYS) for a get-together with drinks and/or dinner on Tuesday 25th, from 18:30 (more details on facebook).
The get-together will take place at Café Einstein, Rathausplatz 4, Vienna . For those going directly from the conference venue, we will be leaving from there at 17:45, and you can find us (Mai Winstrup & Emma Kahle) by the main entrance.

March for Science

The day before the official start of the EGU GA (Saturday 22nd April) is Earth Day. On this day scientists and science enthusiasts across the globe will be marching to celebrate science and to call for the safeguarding of its future. A satellite march organised by local researchers is taking place in Vienna. If you are going to be in Vienna on the Saturday then it is a great chance to get involved – find out more details, including where and when to meet, on the EGU blog.


Am I an ECS?

The EGU officially defines an Early Career Scientist (ECS) as:

an undergraduate or postgraduate (Masters/PhD) student or a scientist who has received his or her highest degree (BSc, MSc, or PhD) within the past seven years  (where appropriate, up to one year of parental leave time may be added per child).

However, everyone is of course more than welcome to come along and  attend the short courses and social events organised by your ECS team, the more the merrier!


General Advice….

The General Assembly can be an overwhelming experience. Here are some tips from the EGU Cryosphere’s esteemed ECS representative Nanna Karlsson:

  • Take advantage of the lunch breaks and go for a walk! When you exit the main conference building turn left and head for the river, or turn right and you will find that behind the concrete buildings there is a very nice park.
  • Go to a session outside your field or area of interest. Even in completely different research topics, I often find similarities in methods or applications that inspire me to think differently about my own research.
  • Explore Vienna and treat yourself to a bit of time off to recover during the week. If your programme is completely packed, then hurry to the U-Bahn in a lunch break (the ticket is after all included in the registration fee) and go to the centre of town. Half an hour’s stroll will give you at least an impression of the city and you will not leave Vienna with the feeling that you have really only seen the conference centre.

Edited by Nanna Karlsson

Image of the Week – Ice on Fire (Part 2)

Image of the Week – Ice on Fire (Part 2)

This week’s image looks like something out of a science fiction movie, but sometimes what we find on Earth is even more strange than what we can imagine! Where the heat of volcanoes meets the icy cold of glaciers strange and wonderful landscapes are formed. 


Location of the Kamchatka Peninsula [Credit: Encyclopaedia Britannica]

The Kamchatka Peninsula, in the far East of Russia, has the highest concentration of active volcanoes on Earth. Its climate is cold due to the Arctic winds from Siberia combined with cold sea currents passing through the Bearing Strait, meaning much of it is glaciated.

Mutnovsky is a volcano located in the south of the peninsula, which last erupted in March 2000. At the base of the volcano are numerous labyrinths of caves within ice. The caves are carved into the ice by volcanically heated water. The roof of the cave shown in our image of the week is thin enough to allow sunlight to penetrate. The light is filtered by the ice creating a magical environment inside the cave, which looks a bit like the stained glass windows of a cathedral. It is not always easy to access these caves, but when the conditions are favourable it makes for a wonderful sight!

The Mutnovsky volcano is fairly accessible for tourists, around 70 km south of the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Maybe this could be the holiday destination you have been searching for?

Further Reading

We have featured a number of stories about ice-volcano interaction on our blog before, read more about them here, here and here!

Edited by Sophie Berger

Image of the Week — Hidden lakes in East Antarctica !

Image of the Week — Hidden lakes in East Antarctica !

Who would have guessed that such a beautiful picture could get you interviewed for the national news?! Certainly not me! And yet, the photo of this englacial lake (a lake trapped within the ice in Antarctica), or rather science behind it, managed to capture the media attention and brought me, one of the happy co-author of this study,  on the Belgian  television… But what do we see on the picture and why is that interesting?


Where was the picture taken?

The Image of this Week shows a 4m-deep meltwater lake trapped 4 m under the surface of the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (a coastal area in East Antarctica). To capture this shot, a team of scientists led by Stef Lhermitte (TU Delft) and Jan Lenaerts (Utrecht University) went to the Roi Baudouin ice shelf, drilled a hole and lowered a camera down (see video 1).

Video 1 : Camera lowered into borehole to show an englacial lake 4m below the surface. [Credit: S. Lhermitte]

How was the lake formed?

In this region of East Antarctica, the katabatic winds are very persistent and come down from the centre of the ice sheet towards the coast, that is the floating ice shelf (see animation below). The effect of the winds are two-fold:

  1. They warm the surface because the temperature of the air mass increases during its descent and the katabatic winds mix the very cold layer of air right above the surface with warmer layers that lie above.
  2. They sweep the very bright snow away, revealing darker snow/ice, which absorb more solar radiation

The combination leads to more melting of the ice/snow in the grounding zone — the boundary between the ice sheet and ice shelf — , which further darkens the surface and therefore increases the amount of solar radiation absorbed, leading to more melting, etc. (This vicious circle is very similar to the ice-albedo feedback presented in this previous post).

Animation showing the processes causing the warm micro-climate on the ice shelf. [Credit: S. Lhermitte]

All the melted ice flows downstream and collects in depressions to form (sub)surface lakes. Those lakes are moving towards the ocean with the surrounding ice and are progressively buried by snowfalls to become englacial lakes. Alternatively, the meltwater can also form surface streams that drain in moulins (see video 2).

Video 2 : Meltwater streams and moulins that drain the water on the Roi Baudouin ice shelf. [Credit: S. Lhermitte]

Why does it matter ?

So far we’ve seen pretty images but you might wonder what could possibly justify an appearance in the national news… Unlike in Greenland, ice loss by surface melting has  often been considered negligible in Antarctica. Meltwater can however threaten the structural integrity of ice shelves, which act as a plug of the grounded ice from upstream. Surface melting and ponding was indeed one of the triggers of the dramatic ice shelves collapses in the past decades, in the Antarctic Peninsula . For instance, the many surfaces lakes on the surface of the Larsen Ice shelf in January 2002, fractured and weakened the ice shelf until it finally broke up (see video 3), releasing more grounded ice to the ocean than it used to do.

Of course surface ponding is not the only precondition for an ice shelf to collapse : ice shelves in the Peninsula had progressively thinned and weakened for decades, prior their disintegration. Our study suggests however that surface processes in East Antarctica are more important than previously thought, which means that this part of the continent is probably more vulnerable to climate change than previously assumed. In the future, warmer climates will intensify melt, increasing the risk to destabilise the East Antarctic ice sheet.

Video 3 : MODIS images show Larsen-B collapse between January 31 and April 13, 2002. [Credit:NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center ]

Reference/Further reading

Edited by Nanna Karlsson