GeoLog

Imaggeo on Mondays

Imaggeo on Mondays: Exploring the underground cryosphere

Imaggeo on Mondays: Exploring the underground cryosphere

The winter season is a good time to take advantage of cold weather activities, whether that’s hitting the ski slopes or warming up by a fire, but for Renato R. Colucci, it’s also one of the best time’s to study the Earth’s underground cryosphere.

Colucci, who took this featured photograph, is a researcher at Italian Institute for Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council (CNR) and is a scientific lead partner for the Cave’s Cryosphere and Climate project, C3 for short. The C3 project aims to monitor, study, date, and model alpine ice cave environments.

This photo was taken by Colucci while he and the C3 project team were surveying a large ice deposit in the Vasto cave, situated within the Southeastern Alps of Italy. Speleologists of the E. Boegan Cave Commission began documenting the caves in this region in the 1960s, making it a great site for studying underground cryosphere today. For the past few years the C3 team has been monitoring the microclimates of these caves as well as analysing how the ice masses within are melting and accumulating ice.

There are many different kinds of ice deposits in caves, but the main difference is how these types accumulate their frozen mass. For some cave ice deposits, like the one featured in this photo, the snowfall that reaches the cave interior amasses over time into solid layers of ice, as is typical for many glaciers. However, other deposits take form when water from melting snow or rain percolates through rock’s voids and fractures, then freezes and accumulates into permanent ice bodies in caves.

These high-altitude underground sources of ice are a lesser-known faction of the cryosphere since they are not very common or reachable to scientists, but still an important one. Often the permanent ice deposits in caves contain pivotal information on how Earth’s climate has evolved over time during the Holocene.

However, if the Earth’s global temperatures keep increasing, this data might not be available in the future. While ice masses in caves are more resilient to climate change compared to their aboveground counterparts, many of these deposits, and the vital data they store, are melting away at an accelerating rate. “Global warming is rapidly destroying such important archives,” said Colucci.

Through this project, the researchers involved hope to better understand the palaeoclimate information stored in these deposits and how the ice will respond to future climate change.

By Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Patterns in the peatland

Imaggeo on Mondays: Patterns in the peatland

This magnificent pattern is the result of hundreds and hundreds of years of evolution. In this structured minerotrophic peatland in Northern Quebec (Canada), which can also be called a string fen or aapa mire, the green peat ridges (or strings) alternate with water-filled hollows (or flarks). Often flarks are replaced by ponds, which vary in number and size. This pattern of strings and flarks (or ponds) runs perpendicular to the flow of ground water.

Many theories exist to explain the dynamics of this pattern; however, we still do not know the mechanism responsible. Almost all of the present theories suggest that the movement of water could be a major driver of the landscape’s features. The permafrost and frost action, the gradual down-slope slipping, and expansion of peat, the merging of hollows, and fire outbreaks are also considered to be potential factors. Further research is going on to deeply understand the complex relation between abiotic and biotic factors influencing how the string fens take shape.

Vegetation in string fens differs between strings and flarks. Strings are dominated by sedges like Carex exilis, Trichophorum cespitosum, Eriophorum angustifolium, and dwarf birches (Betula glandulosa). On the other hand, flarks or ponds are dominated by Menyanthes trifoliata (also known as bogbean), depending on the level of the water within the ground. The peat moss Sphagnum subfulvum is found on strings while a different species of moss Sphagnum majus can be found on floating mats, at the margin of ponds.

This type of peatland is abundant in the boreal regions of the world, and its predominance can be explained by cooler weather conditions, that limit Sphagnum growth and foster greater surface water flow, especially when the snow melts in the spring.

I encountered this beauty on a field trip during summer of 2016 when I was looking for fens burned by natural wildfires. Unfortunately (or not) this one did not burn, even though all the forests at the margin of the peatland burned pretty heavily. Indeed, the ground of the burned forests was covered by Polytrichum strictum, a pioneer moss known to colonize burned forests or peatland soils (look for the apple green vegetation in the bottom of the photograph).

By Mélina Guêné-Nanchen, Laval University, Québec, Canada

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Air samples from afar

Imaggeo on Mondays: Air samples from afar

I’ve taken many photos on fieldwork, everywhere from Malaysia to Antarctica but this particular photo was taken in my ‘home’ lab at the University of East Anglia (UEA) in Norwich, UK. Atmospheric scientists collect air samples canisters such as these from around the world: from high altitude research aircraft (such as the Geophysica), long-term measurement time series (such as Cape Grim) or field campaigns in urban and rural environments.

At UEA we measure these whole air samples for a suite of up to 50 trace gases, covering all the major ozone depleting substances and non-CO2/CH4 greenhouse gases. We measure compounds at ‘parts per trillion’ (ppt) level or below in samples as small as 20 ml. It’s very hard to visualise 1 ppt… but it’s equivalent to about one second in 32,000 years measured in a sample that could fit in an egg cup.

Often these air samples are also analysed at other labs in Europe and other parts of the world, adding to the total number of compounds and isotopes we can quantify. Samples such as these have helped us identify new threats to ozone recovery and to quantify emissions of climatically-important trace gases such as HFCs and PFCs. To measure such trace, trace gases requires an instrument that is both large and temperamental. As such, it doesn’t (well can’t) leave the lab and we bring all the samples back to it. Stopping to imagine where the samples came from and how rare and special they can be (air from 30 km high or from deep in an ancient ice core!) helps me get through the long and labour intensive days in the laboratory.

By Emma Elvidge, University of East Anglia, UK

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: The changing landscape of Patagonia

Imaggeo on Mondays: The changing landscape of Patagonia

Pictured here is a snapshot of an environment in transition. Today’s featured photo was taken at the foot of Monte Fitz Roy, a jagged Patagonia mountain located in Los Glaciares National Park on the border between Argentina and Chile.

The Patagonia region in South America is the second biggest source of glaciers in the southern hemisphere, behind Antarctica, but the region is losing ice at a rapid rate.

Satellite imagery analysis over the last few years has suggested that the Patagonia region is losing ice more than any other part of South America, with some glaciers shedding ice faster than any place in the world.

A recent study reported that the northern and southern Patagonia ice fields in particular are losing roughly 17 billion tons of ice each year. Los Glaciares National Park alone is home to around 50 large glaciers, but because of warming temperatures, almost all of these large ice masses have been shrinking over the last 50 years.

This level of glacial ice loss can be hard to fully imagine, but in 2017, Shauna-Kay Rainford, a PhD student at Pennsylvania State University in the United States and photographer of this featured image, got a first-hand glimpse of Patagonia’s changing landscape.

“Ensconced between the granite boulders I felt like I was at a pivotal moment of continued change,” said Rainford. “While the peaks of Mt. Ritz Roy remain and will likely remain tall and majestic, with each passing year the glacier continues to retreat further towards the peak and the glacial lake continues to expand more and more.”

Rainford had reached this scenic yet tragically ephemeral view after a strenuous hike up the mountain. “It was very emotional to think about what this view will look like in the future if I should ever visit the mountain again,” Rainford recalls. “It is always striking to be confronted with the adverse consequences of human actions.”

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.