GeoLog
Olivia Trani

Olivia Trani

Olivia Trani is the Communications Officer at the European Geosciences Union. She is responsible for the management of the Union's social media presence and the EGU blogs, where she writes regularly for the EGU's official blog, GeoLog. She is also the point of contact for early career scientists (ECS) at the EGU Office. Olivia has a MS in Science Journalism from Boston University and her work has appeared on WBUR-FM, Inside Science News Service, and the American Geophysical Union. Olivia tweets at @oliviatrani.

Imaggeo on Mondays: how short-term storms can impact our landscapes

Imaggeo on Mondays: how short-term storms can impact our landscapes

In the Sierra de Aconquija, a mountain range in the southern Central Andes of Argentina, strong storms often come and go at a moment’s notice, but they can have a long-lasting impact on the Earth’s surface.

The thunderstorm cell featured in this photo formed in less than half an hour, giving all those nearby only a few minutes to take cover. Mitch D’Arcy, a geomorphologist and postdoctoral researcher at the University of Potsdam and the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, had the opportunity to witness this storm (and snap this picture!) while carrying out field work in the area.

“It was a spectacular experience, pouring heavy rain onto a very localised part of the mountain range, but it was also a hazard because the storm was quickly moving towards us with a lot of lightning. Without any trees around, we were likely targets for lightning strikes!” said D’Arcy. Luckily, he and his colleagues were able to find shelter in their truck while the huge downpour passed over them.

These kinds of thunderstorms are short-lived, but have intense precipitation rates. In this case, the temperature dropped by 14 degrees Celsius, and the storm was accompanied by heavy hail and lightning. And while these natural hazards are transient, they can have a long-term impact on the region’s landscape. Severe storms are capable of triggering landslides and floods and can relocate large amounts of sediment and debris in a short period of time.

D’Arcy is part of an international research programme called StRATEGy (Surface processes, Tectonics and Georesources: The Andean foreland basin of Argentina), which looks into how past and present climate change makes a mark on the terrain of the Argentine Andes, among other topics.

This research is essential for understanding and predicting how human-caused climate change will alter weather patterns and impact surface processes (such as how quickly sediments are eroded and transported across landscapes), according to D’Arcy. Having a better understanding of these surface processes and their sensitivity to the climate could help scientists better inform the public about how to prepare for natural hazards, such as flooding, erosion and landslides.

D’Arcy notes that it’s also important to assess how climate and weather trends will impact the sedimentary record, since it is one of the only physical records that scientists can use to examine how the Earth’s surface has change through time.

“North-western Argentina is a fascinating place to study how climate change affects surface processes, because it has experienced pronounced and abrupt changes in hydroclimate through time,” said D’Arcy. Their research has found that even subtle changes in the region’s climate have produced large changes to the surface environment, impacting how rivers take shape and how sediments move.

For example, while the Sierra de Aconquija is a semi-arid environment today, more than 12,000 years ago it used to be much wetter as a result of global climate changes. In fact, back then the mountain range was covered in glaciers and many of the basins were filled with lakes.

“It’s really important that we understand how different landscapes function and how they react to changes in climate. When we look at places like the southern Central Andes in Argentina, we find that the landscape records interesting signatures of ancient climate changes in Earth’s past. However, one of the big questions we still don’t have a good answer to, is how important are these very intense but rare storms for shaping landscapes and creating the sedimentary record from the geological past,” said D’Arcy.

By Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Conversations on a century of geoscience in Europe: Part 1

Conversations on a century of geoscience in Europe: Part 1

When you think about the last century of geoscience, what comes to mind? Perhaps Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift? Or Inge Lehmann’s discovery of Earth’s solid inner core?

Over the last 100 years, geoscientists have made incredible contributions to our understanding of the Earth, the solar system, and beyond. The science community has explored uncharted territory, challenged previously held conceptions, provided vital information to policymakers, worked to address societal challenges, and put forth paths for sustainability. Through the years, researchers have also worked to promote diversity, inclusion, transparency, and accessibility in the geosciences. Many Europe-based scientists have been at the forefront of these advances.

Inspired by the centennials of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), which were both founded in 1919, we would like to highlight Europe’s role in shaping the geosciences and the great achievements of European geoscientists within the last century.

In this series of interviews, scientists across different disciplines and scientific fields reflect on the last 100 years of Earth, space and planetary sciences in Europe and share their perspectives on the future:


Anne-Marie Treguier: Research Director at the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the European Institute for Marine Studies in the Ocean Physics Laboratory

The responsibility of geoscientists is huge. We must frame our scientific questions in the context of a wide range of future scenarios..

Read interview →

 

John Burrows: Professor of the Physics of the Ocean and Atmosphere and a Director of the Institutes of Environmental Physics and Remote Sensing at the University of Bremen

The history of discoveries in the geosciences is a fascinating story, involving unexpected and perplexing observations..

Read interview →

 

Günter Blöschl: Head of the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management and Director of the Centre for Water Resource Systems of the Vienna University of Technology

As Heraclitus said, there is nothing permanent except change. Innovation needs to be permanent. We are in for an exciting future..

 

Read interview →

 

Antje Boetius: Director of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research and Professor of Geomicrobiology at the University of Bremen

When one reads the original reports and letters, we can learn how relevant expeditions and fieldwork were – and still are – for the international, collaborative spirit of the geosciences worldwide. The amazing thing is, in many ways we have remained explorers of our own planet Earth even today..

 

 

Read interview →

 

Bernhard Diekmann, Head of the Research Unit Potsdam of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research and Professor of Quaternary Geology at Potsdam University

During the last 100 years, the focus in geological research was understanding of processes in Earth’s interior and skin…The geosciences should no longer be seen as an individual field of research, but must be integrated into a holistic view of natural and social sciences..

 

Read interview →

Interviews by Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer

Imaggeo on Mondays: The salt mine carving into the Carpathians

Imaggeo on Mondays: The salt mine carving into the Carpathians

The image gives us a glimpse into the Slănic Salt Mine in central Romania, about 100 kilometres north of the capital city Bucharest. The region was actively mined for almost 30 years, from 1943 to 1970.

The Slănic Salt Mine is the largest salt mine in Europe, and the facility consists of 14 large chambers, each more than 50 metres high. The cavities of the mine, more than 200 metres deep, carve into the Southern Carpathian Mountains, offering a unique large-scale view into how the layers of rock beneath the Earth’s surface bend and fold. The structures featured in this image were stretched out over time as the Earth’s tectonic plates shifted, highlighting just how fluid our planet can be.

Compared to other rocks, the rock salts in this mine can change form and flow without much pressure and at relatively shallow depths. “This flow is however very slow, so that man-made cavities in salt mines deform very slowly and remain open for decades,” notes Janos Urai, a professor of structural geology, tectonics and geomechanics at RWTH Aachen University in Germany who snapped this image while visiting the mine in 2017. “We study this slow flow of salt in nature, to be able to improve predictions of the long-term evolution of nuclear waste repositories and abandoned salt caverns.

The mine is no longer used for resource extraction, but is now an active tourist destination (there are even playgrounds, pool tables and other recreational features).

By Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer

You can learn more about salt tectonics on the Tectonics and Structural Geology blog here:  Minds over Methods: Reconstruction of salt tectonic features

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Inside the whale’s mouth

Imaggeo on Mondays: Inside the whale’s mouth

Often there are moments in our lives when we are reminded of the strength and magnitude of our environment, whether that’s trekking through a mountain range or gazing at the horizon from the ocean shore. Yet arguably there are few things that can make you feel as small as a particularly powerful summer storm.

“The atmosphere is undoubtedly one of the most dynamic components in the Earth System. Nothing can demonstrate the power of nature to an observer as well as a strong thunderstorm rolling in,” said Michiel Baatsen, a climate researcher at Utrecht University in the Netherlands who snapped this week’s featured photo. Besides being a climate researcher, Baatsen is also a weather enthusiast and storm chaser, fascinated by severe weather and thick towering cloud formations.

He and a team of friends will often hit the road, travelling across Western Europe in pursuit of extreme thunderstorms that pass the continent. “In these ventures, we try to capture some inspiring scenes and have been amazed many times by the things we end up seeing,” said Baatsen.

This photo was taken in June last year while Baatsen was traveling through the northeastern corner of the Netherlands. He and his friends were searching for a thunderstorm that had crossed the border from Germany, but the local humidity was relatively high, making visibility too poor to properly locate the approaching storm. “After several failed attempts to locate the approaching storms, we realised the conditions were so hazy that they completely obscured the leading cloud structures,” said Baatsen. But once the first clouds passed overhead, the conditions suddenly changed and the sky became clearer, revealing a dramatic view of the storm.

If you feel as if the storm feature in the photo is about to engulf you, you’re not alone. This kind of cloud structure is called a shelf cloud, but it’s also often referred to as a ‘whale’s mouth’, since the formations often give the impression of being consumed by a giant whale.

‘Whale’s mouth’ clouds take shape when cold, dense air surging out of a thunderstorm collides with warm air entering the storm. When the two currents make contact, the air goes upward and condenses into a thick sheet of clouds. This kind of formation appears at the leading edge of a thunderstorm, a harbinger to the incoming rainfall.

For Baatsen and his colleagues, the storm offered a short window between its first gusts and the subsequent rainfall, allowing them to observe this natural phenomenon. “With the whale’s mouth being overhead, there was a brief moment to appreciate this scene during which one was basically trapped in a cage surrounded by the rain rolling in on one side and the haze drawing away on the other side,” said Baatsen.

By Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer