CR
Cryospheric Sciences

Early career

An interview with Jenny Turton, early-career representative for the cryo-division of the EGU

The European Geophysical Union (EGU) has a number of scientific divisions or themes, such as cryosphere, atmospheric sciences and geodesy. Each division has a representative for early career scientists, and often a team of scientists who write and edit blogs and organise events. Today,  Jenny Turton, the new representative for the cryo-division, explains a bit more about the role and what she hopes to achieve.


JT: Hi! I’m Jenny Turton, the new EGU CR ECS rep.

This is me! [Credit: Jenny Turton]

That’s a lot of acronyms, help us out?

JT: It is quite a mouthful. I am the representative for Early Career Scientists (ECS) in the cryosphere (CR) division for the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Am I an ECS? Are you my rep?

JT: EGU says that an early career scientist is anyone who has finished their highest degree within the last 7 years (or 8 if you’ve had time away for childcare or healthcare). Although I am interested in promoting early career scientists across all physical science disciplines, I am the representative for anyone in the cryospheric sciences. That includes anyone studying/researching ice, snow, cold climates, polar regions, high-mountain glaciers, sea ice, permafrost, atmosphere-ice interactions, ice sheets… and I’m sure I have forgotten some. 56% of the cryosphere community who have an EGU membership are early career scientists!

So what will you do in your new role?

JT: I will be the point of contact between any early career scientists and EGU. I will put forward suggestions from the cryosphere community to the EGU council, on how EGU can better represent and support early career scientists. This includes at the general assembly in Vienna (mostly just known as EGU), but also in EGU journals and other events. More specifically, I have two main avenues I would like to work on during my time. Want to know more?

Yes please!

JT: Firstly, I want to support and develop the early career scientist community in terms of diversity. This includes gender, ethnicity and LGBTQ+ rights. Just 35% of the EGU members are women, and this increases to 42% for early career scientist community. Whilst the EGU cryosphere hasn’t yet analysed their breakdown in terms of gender, just 33% of the American Geosciences Union cryosphere members (our American sister) are women. The number of women in STEM areas (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) is increasing, but I want to do more to represent the women we already have in science, and to try and increase the numbers. When organising panel talks, or inviting guest speakers, please think about how you can ensure a more diverse range of backgrounds and routes into science. Read our past blog dedicated to women in science.

We do not have numbers of scientists who categorise themselves as LGBTQ+, however at the general assembly in Vienna in 2019, EGU held their first ‘pride’ event, which was well attended. In this event we discussed what challenges scientists have faced on their career path so far, and how ‘allies’ (people who do not categorise themselves as LGBTQ+ but want to be supporters of those who do) can assist and support in making EGU and science a more diverse place. I will be supporting the organisers of this event again for next year’s General Assembly.

That sounds like a good idea! I follow ‘Polar Pride’ (@PridePolar) on twitter. What’s your second focus point?

The ECS reps and cryo team organise short courses at the general assembly which are well attended and are aimed at the ECS community. Topics include: how to find funding (the picture here), a polar career panel (jointly run with APECS) and presenting tips. [Credit: Jenny Turton]

JT: My second focus is on making strong links between the other EGU early career scientist reps. I have a small confession… I am not wholly within the cryosphere division, I am actually a mixture of cryosphere, atmospheric sciences and climate. There are many scientists (especially scientists who move between topics after their PhDs) whose research does not fall into one category. I research the interactions between the atmosphere and the cryosphere for the 79°N glacier in Northeast Greenland (see this previous blog post). More specifically I have looked at whether there is evidence of climate change in this region (big hint: there is) and run an atmospheric model to investigate the processes that are having an impact on the ice. I know I am not the only person who spans multiple research divisions, but that doesn’t mean you have to feel left out, or as if you’re in no-man’s land. During my time as a rep, I aim to work closely with other reps to create bridges between them. This will include joint social activities and organised short-courses that are of interest to many groups.

You’re going to be a busy bee (or a busy polar bear maybe?). Do you do this alone?

No! Absolutely not. The EGU cryo team includes many people. We have a number of chief editors, many regular editors and authors for our weekly blogs. We have a social media team, who focus on spreading important information and highlighting our blog posts. We also rely on a number of members who help organise and convene the short courses at EGU and organise our other events. We are always looking for new members for our growing team. Get in touch for information on joining us!

How do we know you will get this done? Do you have any experience of this sort of role?

The Networking and Early Career Scientist Zone is a new feature at the EGU general assembly, and is a space for early career scientists to meet their reps, hang out, work in a quiet spot and grab a coffee. There is also an info board with all of the social and off-programme events taking place. [Credit: Jenny Turton]

JT: Actually, yes! I have always been active in outreach, organisation and extra-academia activities throughout my PhD and postdoc. I was the head of education and outreach for the UK Polar Network (the UK Branch of the Association for Polar Early Career Scientists) and have organised student conferences with the Royal Meteorological Society. I’m also pretty organised, and a big fan of to-do lists which keep me on track. I think I am quite well placed to ensure that as many scientists voices with the cryosphere are heard. I completed my PhD in 2017 with the British Antarctic Survey (there’s a lot of cryo scientists there you know) and the University of Leeds. I also keep in contact with the University of Lancaster, where I did my masters and undergraduate degrees. Now, I am based in Erlangen, with two growing teams of scientists with cryosphere interests, and my research is part of a larger German-based project with many cryo-scientists. I’m also an active tweeter (@TurtonJ1990) which means I can often reach out to other early career scientists on the twittersphere.

How can we get in touch with you and how will you give us information?

JT: The best way to contact me is through the EGU cryosphere email (ecs-cr@egu.eu), or on twitter (@TurtonJ1990 or @EGU_CR). During the next EGU general assembly (#EGU20), I will often be in the Networking and ECS lounge, or floating between cryosphere sessions (unless its 6pm, then I’ll be near the beer stand!). The cryo twitter account will inform you of social events and relevant dates for EGU, our blog will keep you informed more informally, and there are the EGU ECS newsletters.

Right, thanks for the info. I’d better get on to publishing this blog.

JT: And I need to do some research. Feel free to get in touch!

Edited by Sophie Berger

A brief guide to Navigating EGU 2019!

A brief guide to Navigating EGU 2019!

Are you going to the EGU General Assembly in Vienna next week? If so, read on for a quick guide to navigating the week: Where to start, what to see and how to meet people and enjoy yourself! After all, the meeting is as much about the opportunities to meet scientists from all over the world as it is about the science itself.


How on Earth do I know what is going on?!

The EGU General Assembly (GA) is a massive meeting with many parallel session, short courses, medal lectures and much more. So how do you know what is going on and when, and how can you effectively keep track of it all?

The simplest way is to use the online EGU program – it has options to browse sessions of interest chronologically or by discipline. You can simply click on a session or an individual presentation to add it to your personal programme. You can then view your personal program online, print it as a PDF or use the EGU2019 mobile app to keep track of your personal program on the go. The app also has a handy map feature, to help you find your way around AND new for 2019, a digital version of “EGU Today” – the daily EGU GA newsletter

Don’t forget to keep track of the twitter hastags #EGU19 and #EGU19_CR to see what is happening on a second by second basis and also the @EGU_CR twitter feed!

New Schedule for 2019!

The eagle-eyed amongst you may have spotted that the timing of sessions at EGU has changed this year. The new schedule has posters, orals and PICOs in parallel (posters always used to be in the afternoon only!)  and each “block” (i.e. one session of talks, posters or PICOs) is 15 minutes longer than before.

  • 08:30–10:15 – Posters, orals, PICOs
  • 10:15–10:45 – Coffee break
  • 10:45–12:30 – Posters, orals, PICOs
  • 12:30–14:00 – Lunch break
  • 14:00–15:45 – Posters, orals, PICOs
  • 15:45–16:15 – Coffee break
  • 16:15–18:00  – Posters, orals, PICOs
  • 18:00–19:00  – Beer/soft drinks – Networking
  • 19:00–20:00 – Townhall meetings, (some) medal lectures, (some) short courses, special events!

Note: If you have a poster, you should put it up before 08:30 on the day of your session. It will stay up all day, but you will only be expected to stand by it and present in your allocation time slot. Don’t forget to take it down between 19:00-19:30 if you want to keep it!


Urm… so I made it to Vienna – where is the conference centre?

The EGU General Assembly is held at the Austria Center Vienna (ACV) each year. The nearest metro stop is “Kaisermühlen/Vienna Int. Centre” on the U1 line – here is a handy Metro Plan! When you leave the station there will be plenty of signs to the conference – if in doubt follow the large group of Geoscientists (they can usually be recognised by their practical footwear and waterproof jackets 😉 )

The registration fee to the General Assembly includes a public transportation ticket. The public transportation ticket is valid Monday–Friday, 8–12 April 2019. More info on travel can be found here.


Social events Cryospheric Scientists!

So you have spend your days at EGU absorbing plenty of science… but there is another very important aspect to conferences – they are a great place to socialise! However, it can be very daunting to know how and where to meet people at such a large meeting.

This year the EGU Cryosphere team are organising two social events joint with APECS. Come along, meet some new people and enjoy a coffee, beer, soft drink – whatever takes your fancy! We also wanted to highlight this year’s Pride@EGU event – open to anyone!

Pre-Icebreaker Meet Up

When and Where: Sunday 7 Apr, from 16:00-18:00 at Cafe Merkur (U-bahn –  U2 – Rathaus)

Pre-icebreaker meet up EGU 2017

The conference icebreaker can be a daunting experience to attend alone but it is a great event to go along to. We are organising a friendly pre-icebreaker meet up for cryospheric and polar ECSs. We will meet up, have a chat, have a coffee/beer/cake and then head to the EGU conference centre together in time for the main icebreaker. Keep your eyes on the Facebook event for more details!

Cryo Drinks!

When and Where: Tuesday evening 9th April from 20:30 at Brandauer Bierbögen (U-bahn – Spittelau – U4 & U6)

This year we are there will be a return of the infamous Cryo meet-up with a small change – it will be a drinks only event this year (it was simply too big and hectic with everyone eating last year!). So come along and meet some fellow cryo-people old and new. If you want to travel from the conference centre together, we will meet after the ECS Networking Event at 20:00 at the main entrance (look for the blue and white EGU Cryosphere signs!) or you can meet us at Brandauer Bierbögen from 20:30.

Please remember to bring cash to pay for your own drinks (it will be very slow if 50+ people are trying to pay by card!)

Follow the Facebook event for updates and hopefully see plenty of faces old and new there 😀

Pride @ EGU

When and Where: Tuesday 9th April, 15:00-16:00 – Networking & ECS Zone (Red Level)

The main event is from 15:00 – 16:00 plus Twitter chat from 14:30! Pop along to support and find out more about the LGBTQA+ community at EGU. Open to anyone who is interested.


Conference highlights for ECSs:

There are so many courses and sessions running at EGU this year – we have highlighted a few below, but be sure to check out the full list in the online program (see above) as well as this helpful guide to “Session of special interest to Early Career Scientists (ECS)” published by EGU and this blog post “What is on for ECSs at EGU” by Oliver Trani the EGU Communications officer.

How to navigate EGU: tips & tricks

When and Where: Monday 08th Apr, 08:30–10:15 / Room -2.16 (Brown Level)

Held first thing on Monday morning, this could be just the session you need to get your week off to a productive start!

Help! I’m presenting at a scientific conference!

When and Where: Monday 08th Apr, 14:00–15:45 / Room -2.62 (Brown Level)

Presenting at a scientific conference can be daunting for early career scientist and established. How can you optimally take advantage of those 12 minutes to communicate your research effectively? How do you cope with nervousness? What happens if someone asks a question that you don’t think you can answer?

Come along to this short course on the Monday of EGU for some tips, tricks and advice!

Polar Science Career Panel (EGU Cryosphere and APECS)

When and Where: Tuesday 9th Apr, 12:45–13:45 / Room -2.32 (Brown Level)

Many early career scientists come to EGU looking for inspiration to take the next step in their careers. There are so many opportunities both academic and elsewhere that it can be daunting to know where to start looking and what the options are. Join us for a panel discussion about everything to do with life post-polar-PhD and expand your ideas about where you might go next!

If you can’t make it on the day, but want to see what our panelists have to say, follow the @EGU_CR twitter feed and hastag #EGU19_CR for a live-tweet of the event!

Cryosphere Division Meeting

When and Where: Thursday 11th Apr, 12:45–13:45 / Room N1 (Green Level)

Each division at EGU has a meeting during the GA, please come along to the Cryosphere Divisions meeting to learn more about what the EGU CR division does, who runs it and have your say! ECSs are particularly important – you are the future of EGU!

Meet The Cryosphere Editor! 

When and Where: Friday 12th Apr, 16:15–18:00 / Room -2.31 (Brown Level)

Publishing your research in a peer reviewed journal is essential for a career in research, however, getting those first few papers submitted can be daunting. This short course, given by the co editor-in-chief of The Cryosphere Thomas Mölg, will cover all you need to know about the publication process from start to end!


Things to keep in Mind:

This comes from a longer list the EGU provide here, but these are my highlights!

  • Bring a water bottle! There are water fountains all around the building and Vienna tap water is delicious!
  • EGU’s person of trust: if you experienced infringements against the rules of conduct, feel uncomfortable or experience any harassment, upset or abuse during the meeting, please contact EGU’s person of trust at the special registration desk in Hall X5. You can also contact the EGU Information in the entrance hall (Yellow Level 0 – ground floor) and they will call the person of trust. It is also possible to report to conduct@egu.eu.
  • Preferred pronouns: pick up a badge for your lanyard with your preferred pronouns from the EGU Booth in Hall X2 (Brown Level -2 – basement), the registration help desk in Hall X5, or the EGU Information (Yellow Level 0 – ground floor).

Some more general advice from your Cryosphere ECS rep…

The General Assembly can be an overwhelming experience. Take advantage of the lunch breaks and go for a walk! When you exit the main conference building turn left and head for the river, or turn right and you will find that behind the concrete buildings there is a very nice park. Beyond that, explore Vienna and treat yourself to a bit of time off to recover during the week. It is more important to pay attention to the sessions you do attend than attend ALL of the possible sessions. Did you know a Vienna U-Bahn ticket is included in the registration fee? Jump on a train the centre of town and go for a stroll!


Am I an ECS?

The EGU officially defines an Early Career Scientist (ECS) as:

an undergraduate or postgraduate (Masters/PhD) student or a scientist who has received his or her highest degree (BSc, MSc, or PhD) within the past seven years  (where appropriate, up to one year of parental leave time may be added per child).

However, everyone is of course more than welcome to come along and attend the short courses and social events organised by your ECS team, the more the merrier!


Edited by Sophie Berger

Image of the Week – Seven weeks in Antarctica [and how to study its surface mass balance]

Figure 1 – Drone picture of our field camp in the Princess Ragnhild coastal region, East Antarctica. [Credit: Nander Wever]

After only two months of PhD at the Laboratoire de Glaciologie of the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Belgium), I had the chance to participate in an ice core drilling campaign in the Princess Ragnhild coastal region, East Antarctica, during seven weeks in December 2018 – January 2019 for the Mass2Ant project. Our goal was to collect ice cores to better evaluate the evolution of the surface mass balance in the Antarctic Ice sheet. Despite the sometimes-uncomfortable weather conditions, the ins and outs of the fieldwork and the absence of friends and family, these seven weeks in Antarctica were a wonderful experience…


Mass2Ant

Mass2Ant is the acronym of the project: “East Antarctic surface mass balance in the Anthropocene: observations and multiscale modelling”. This project aims to better understand the processes controlling the surface mass balance in East Antarctica, its variability in the recent past and, ultimately, improve the projections of mass balance changes of the East Antarctic ice sheet.

What exactly is the surface mass balance?

The mass balance of an ice sheet (see Fig. 2) is the net balance between the mass gained by snow accumulation and the loss of mass by melting (either at the surface or under the floating ice shelves) and calving (breaking off of icebergs at the ice shelves fronts).

The surface mass balance on the other hand only considers the surface of the ice sheet. It is thus, for a given location, the difference between:

  • incoming mass: snowfall, and
  • outgoing mass, due to melting processes (fusion and sublimation), meltwater runoff and transport or erosion by wind at the ice sheet interface.

Figure 2 – Representation of the mass balance of an ice sheet [Credit: Figure adapted from NASA, Wikimedia Commons].

Overall, the ice sheet mass balance – the principal indicator of the “health state” of an ice sheet – is the balance between the surface mass balance, iceberg calving and basal melt under the ice shelves. A good evaluation of these three factors is thus essential to better quantify the evolution of the Antarctic mass balance under anthropogenic warming and therefore its contribution to future sea level rise.

However, the surface mass balance is characterized by strong temporal and spatial variations (see Figure 3) and is poorly constrained. In order to improve future projections for Antarctica, it is essential to better assess the variability of the Antarctic surface mass balance by directly collecting data in the field. Within this framework, the goal of the Mass2Ant project is to study the surface mass balance in the Princess Ragnhild coastal region (marked in the Figure 3).

Figure 3 – Surface mass balance (1989-2009) from RACMO2 (a regional climate model) of Antarctica (left) and Greenland (right) in kg/m².yr. Contour levels (dashed) are shown every 500 m. Black dot is the approximative position of the drilling site on the Tison Ice Rise. [Credit: adapted from Figure 1 of van den Broeke et al. (2011)].

Collecting the data [or how can we use ice cores to infer surface mass balance?]

Surface mass balance can be determined by analyzing ice core records. As a part of our expedition, ice cores were collected on the summit of the so-called “Tison Ice Rise” (a non-official name) – 70°S 21°E, near the Belgian Princess Elisabeth Station. We drilled to a depth of 260.1 m, which we expect to date back to the 15th century.
The drilling system, named the Eclipse drill, contains a motor on top of a drill barrel – which is composed of an inner barrel that cuts the ice core with 3 knives and collects it and an outer barrel (a tube) that collects the chips created. Due to the overlaying ice, pressure increases very quickly with depth. Deep ice cores are thus subject to much higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. In order to reduce these strong pressure differences as the ice core is brought to the surface, drilling fluid was poured in the boreholes, a technique called “wet-drilling”. This was the first time the wet-drilling technique was used by our team, and it significantly improved the quality of our ice cores compared to the traditional method used during the previous campaigns!

Figure 4 – A part of our team in the drilling tent. An ice core can be observed in the inner barrel of the drilling system. A wooden box is placed on top of the trench, under the drill barrel to collect the chips contained in the outer barrel. [Credit: Hugues Goosse]

The 329 collected ice cores will be analyzed in our lab in Brussels. More specifically, we will focus on

  • the water stable isotopes: the seasonal cycle of stable isotopes of water in ice will be used for relative dating of the ice core;
  • the major ions (Na+, nssSO4, Na+/SO42-, NO3…) present in the ice: the reconstruction of the seasonal cycle of these ions allows us to refine the isotopic dating and therefore infer the annual snow/firn/ice thickness.
  • the conductivity of the ice, which also shows a clear seasonal signal used for dating. Moreover, the conductivity signal is also reacting to localized extra inputs – for example from past volcanic eruptions – therefore providing an absolute dating, which reduces our dating method uncertainties.

The seasonality of these signals will allow us to infer the yearly ice thicknesses (see this post). By taking into account the deformation of the ice, we will then be able to reconstruct the evolution of the surface mass balance in the Princess Ragnhild Coast region since the 15th century.

Life in the field

What was a typical day like for us? In fact, it strongly depended on the team to which you belonged as we were divided into two groups:

  • The “day group” was working on measurements such as snow density and radar analyses and worked roughly between 8 AM and 8 PM.
  • The second group – the drilling team, including me – worked during nights (between 9 PM and 9 AM) because of the too high temperatures during day, which would lead to ice core melt.

The drilling team adapted quite easily to this timing as the sun was shining 24 hours a day. In order to spend a common moment, a joint meal was organized every day at 8.30 AM, with some of us having their dinner while others were having breakfast.
The everyday life mainly occurred in two equipped containers. The first container was our living space, which we used as kitchen, dining room and working space. The second container consisted of a cloakroom, the toilets and the bathroom (with a real shower, a luxury in the field!). Each of us had a tent to sleep, with adapted sleeping bag, making it quite comfortable. As we stayed 5 weeks at the drilling site, we spent Christmas and New Year’s Eve on the field. It was a good occasion to eat fondue while sharing some fun stories and jokes (Fig. 5).

Figure 5 – Christmas time spent together, giving presents and eating fondue. [Credit: Nander Wever]

Why should you too go to Antarctica?

I’ll keep many memories of the time we all spent together, but also of the amazing landscapes and the calm and peacefulness of this white immensity… Despite the sometimes-uncomfortable weather conditions (a full week of whiteout days, lucky us!), this unique experience was wonderful! I’ve learned so much, from a scientific but also personal point of view. It was also a chance to participate in the collection of the samples that I will study during the next four years of my PhD. Before I left for Antarctica, someone told me that “When you went to Antarctica once, you usually want to go again”. Well, that’s definitely true for me!

Many thanks to belspo for funding this project, to the International Polar Foundation and Princess Elisabeth Antarctica staffs for the work both in Cape Town and in the station, and last but not least, thanks to the Mass2Ant team in the field that made this experience an amazing adventure.

Further reading

Edited by Violaine Coulon


Sarah Wauthy is a PhD student at Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Her PhD is part of the Mass2Ant project and aims at determining paleo-accumulation in the region of the Princess Ragnhild Coast (Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica) as well as the paleo-extension of sea ice before and across the Anthropocene transition (ca. last 3 centuries), by performing high-resolution multiparametric analyses on ice cores collected during field campaigns.

Image of the Week – Promoting interdisciplinary science in the Arctic: what is IASC?

Image of the Week –  Promoting interdisciplinary science in the Arctic: what is IASC?

The Arctic is one of the fastest changing regions on the Earth, where climate change impacts are felt both earlier and more strongly than elsewhere in the world. As an integral part of the Earth system, the Arctic is shaped by global processes, and in turn, Arctic processes influence the living conditions of hundreds of millions of people at lower latitudes. No one country or community can understand the Arctic alone. Big Arctic science questions require ambitious Arctic science – but researchers sometimes need a little help bridging both national and disciplinary boundaries. That‘s a lofty mission, but how does the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) achieve it? Read on!


How does IASC support science?

Each IASC member country appoints up to two members to each of IASC’s 5 scientific Working Groups (Atmosphere, Cryosphere, Marine, Social & Human, and Terrestrial). These groups allocate IASC‘s scientific funds for small meetings, workshops, and projects. Follow the to see the science priorities of each group, find out about upcoming Working Group activities, and explore the expertise of their members!

Understanding the future of the Arctic means we need to invest in the Arctic researchers of today. Therefore, At least 40% of IASC’s working group funds must be co-spent with another working group, to encourage interdisciplinary projects. Check out upcoming events in 2019 like the Year Of Polar Prediction Arctic Science Workshop, High Latitude Dust Workshop, Snow Science Workshop, and Network on Arctic Glaciology meeting – just to name a few!

What else does IASC do?

IASC convenes the annual Arctic Science Summit Week (ASSW), which provides the opportunity for coordination, cooperation and collaboration between the various scientific organizations involved in Arctic research and to economize on travel and time. In addition to IASC meetings, ASSW is a great opportunity to host Arctic science meetings and workshops. ASSW2019 will be in Arkhangelsk, Russia.

IASC influences international Arctic policymakers by being an observer to the Arctic Council and contributing to its work. IASC projects include contributing experts to an assessment on marine plastic pollution in the Arctic, helping coordinate reviews for the first Snow, Water, Ice, and Permafrost Assessment (SWIPA) report, and co-leading the Arctic Data Committee & Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks.

Supporting Early Career Researchers

At least one third of IASC‘s scientific funds must be spent on supporting early career researchers (see the image of the week)! In addition, the IASC Fellowship Program is meant to engage early career researchers in the Working Groups and give them experience in helping lead international and interdisciplinary Arctic science activities. Applications are now open and due by 19 November!

IASC convenes the annual Arctic Science Summit Week (ASSW), which provides the opportunity for coordination, cooperation and collaboration between the various scientific organizations involved in Arctic research and to economize on travel and time. In addition to IASC meetings, ASSW is a great opportunity to host Arctic science meetings and workshops. ASSW2019 will be in Arkhangelsk, Russia.

Get Involved!

Do you have a great idea that you think IASC might want to support? Or want to learn more about IASC? Connect with IASC on Facebook, and sign up to receive our monthly newsletter! You are also encouraged to reach out to the relevant national/disciplinary IASC Working Group experts, IASC Council member, and the IASC Secretariat.

Further reading

Edited by Adam Bateson


Allen Pope is the IASC Executive Secretary. IASC scientific funds are provided from national member contributions. The IASC Secretariat in Akureyri, Iceland is supported by Rannís, the Icelandic Centre for Research. The IASC Secretariat is responsible for the day-to-day operations and administration of IASC. Allen also maintains an affiliation as a Research Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado Boulder where he continues research based on remote sensing of glacier mass balance and surface hydrology. You can find out more about Allen and his research at https://about.me/allenpope. He also enjoys sharing and discussing polar science with the public and tweets @PopePolar.

A brief guide to Navigating EGU 2018!

A brief guide to Navigating EGU 2018!

Are you going to the EGU General Assembly in Vienna in just over a week? If so, read on for a quick guide to navigating the week: Where to start, what to see and how to meet people and enjoy yourself! After all, the meeting is as much about the opportunities to meet scientists from all over the world as it is about the science itself.


How on Earth do I know what is going on?!

The EGU General Assembly is a massive meeting with many parallel session, short courses, medal lectures and much more. So how do you know what is going on and when, and how can you effectively keep track of it all?

The simplest way is to use the online EGU program – it has options to browse sessions of interest chronologically or by discipline. You can simply click on a session or an individual presentation to add it to your personal programme. You can then view your personal program online, print it as a PDF or use the EGU2018 mobile app to keep track of your personal program on the go – scan the QR code to download it or click here from your smartphone. The app also has a handy map feature, which can be a great help navigating such a large venue!

Don’t forget to keep track of the twitter hastag #EGU18 to see what is happening on a second by second basis and also the @EGU_CR twitter feed and hashtag  for cryo-info!


Urm… so I’m in Vienna – where is the conference centre?

The EGU General Assembly is held at the Austria Center Vienna (ACV) each year. The nearest metro stop is “Kaisermühlen/Vienna Int. Centre” on the U1 line – here is a handy Metro Plan! When you leave the station there will be plenty of signs to the conference – if in doubt follow the large group of Geoscientists (they can usually be recognised by their practical footwear and waterproof jackets 😉 )

The registration fee to the General Assembly includes a public transportation ticket. The public transportation ticket is valid Monday–Friday, 9–13 April 2018. More info on travel can be found here.


Social events for Early Career Cryosphere Scientists!

So you have spend your days at EGU absorbing plenty of science… but there is another very important aspect to conferences – they are a great place to socialise! However, it can be very daunting to know how and where to meet people at such a large meeting.

This year the EGU Cryosphere team are organising two social events joint with APECS, as well as a lunch for anyone who is interested in joining our blog/social media team. Come along, meet some new people and enjoy some tasty food and a cold beer or two!

Pre-Icebreaker Meet Up

When and Where: Sunday 8 Apr, from 16:00-18:00 at Cafe Merkur

The conference icebreaker can be a daunting experience to attend alone but it is a great event to go along to. We are organising a friendly pre-icebreaker meet up for cryospheric ECSs. We will meet up, have a chat, eat some cake and then head to the EGU conference centre together in time for the main icebreaker. Keep your eyes on the Facebook event for more details!

Cryo Night Out!

When and Where: Wednesday evening 11 April from 19:30 in Zwölf-Apostelkeller

There will be a return of the infamous joint APECS and EGU Cryosphere division night out come and join us for Viennese food and drinks and plenty of laughs! If you want to travel from the conference centre together, we will meet after the poster session at 18:50 at the main entrance (look for the blue and white EGU Cryosphere signs!) or you can meet us at Zwölf-Apostelkeller at 19:30. Two important things to do if you would like to come:

  • Please fill out Doodle poll to give us an idea of numbers!
  • Please remember to bring cash to pay for your own meal and drinks (it is possible to pay by card, but it will be very slow if 50+ people are trying to do it!)

Follow the Facebook event for updates and hopefully see plenty of faces old and new there 😀

EGU Cryosphere Blog and Social Media Team Lunch

When and Where: Wednesday lunchtime (12:15), on the left when looking at the main entrance.

Come along for an informal lunch meeting if you are already — or interested in getting — involved in the EGU Cryosphere team (which includes this blog and out social media channels). We will meet on the left of the main entrance to the conference centre at 12:15 and then we will decide on where to go depending on the weather. Don’t forget to bring your lunch with you. Please email Sophie Berger for more details.


Short courses

As well as the scientific sessions, did you know there are also other sessions called “short courses” at EGU? Short courses provide a great chance to learn about a topic, skill or piece of software that has been on your to do list, so why not drop by and meet the experts who have kindly agreed to participate and share their knowledge?

There are many courses running at EGU this year – we have highlighted a few below, but be sure to check out the full list in the online program (see above) as well as this helpful guide to “Session of special interest to Early Career Scientists (ECS)” published by EGU.

How to navigate EGU: tips & tricks

When and Where: Monday 09 Apr, 08:30–10:00 / Room -2.91

Held first thing on Monday morning, this could be just the session you need to get your week off to a productive start!

Help! I’m presenting at a scientific conference!

When and Where: Monday 09 Apr, 13:30–15:00 / Room -2.16

Presenting at a scientific conference can be daunting for early career scientist and established. How can you optimally take advantage of those 12 minutes to communicate your research effectively? How do you cope with nervousness? What happens if someone asks a question that you don’t think you can answer?

Come along to this short course on the Monday of EGU for some tips, tricks and advice!

Polar Science Career Panel (EGU Cryosphere and APECS)

When and Where: Tuesday 10 Apr, 12:15–13:15 / Room -2.85

Many early career scientists come to EGU looking for inspiration to take the next step in their careers. There are so many opportunities both academic and elsewhere that it can be daunting to know where to start looking and what the options are. Join us for a panel discussion about everything to do with life post-polar-PhD and expand your ideas about where you might go next. Our panelists are:

  • Rob Bingham – Reader in Glaciology and Geophysics at Uni. Edinburgh, UK
  • Maria Eden, project manager of Beyond EPICA: Oldest Ice
  • Daisy Dunne, journalist for Carbon Brief
  • Nora Helbig, research Scientist at SLF in Davos
  • Helge Goessling, Junior Research Group leader at AWI, Bremerhaven

If you can’t make it on the day, but want to see what our panelists have to say, follow the  hashtag for a live-tweet of the event!

Communicating geoscience to the media 

When and Where: Tuesday 10 Apr, 15:30–17:00 / Room -2.31

The news media is a powerful tool to help scientists communicate their research to wider audiences. However, at times, messages in news reports do not properly reflect the real scientific facts and discoveries, resulting in misleading coverage and wary scientists.  In this short course, co-organised with the CL and CR divisions, we will bring together science journalists and researchers with experience working with the media to provide tips and tricks on how scientists can better prepare for interviews with reporters.

Heads up: over EGU Cryosphere’s very own Sophie Berger will be one of the speakers! 😀


Am I an ECS?

The EGU officially defines an Early Career Scientist (ECS) as:

an undergraduate or postgraduate (Masters/PhD) student or a scientist who has received his or her highest degree (BSc, MSc, or PhD) within the past seven years  (where appropriate, up to one year of parental leave time may be added per child).

However, everyone is of course more than welcome to come along and attend the short courses and social events organised by your ECS team, the more the merrier!


General Advice….

The General Assembly can be an overwhelming experience. Here are some tips which have been passed down over the years from one ECS Rep to another:

  • Take advantage of the lunch breaks and go for a walk! When you exit the main conference building turn left and head for the river, or turn right and you will find that behind the concrete buildings there is a very nice park.
  • Don’t get star-struck by a “big name” scientist you have always wanted to talk to – remember they are just humans (and usually friendly)! Go and introduce yourself and tell them what you do – the afternoon poster session is often a good chance to do this!
  • Go to a session outside your field or area of interest. Even in completely different research topics, similarities in methods or applications can inspire you to think differently about your own research.
  • Explore Vienna and treat yourself to a bit of time off to recover during the week. It is more important to pay attention to the sessions you do attend than attend ALL of the possible sessions. Did you know a Vienna U-Bahn ticket is included in the registration fee? Jump on a train the centre of town and go for a stroll!

Edited by Sophie Berger

Mapping the bottom of the world — an Interview with Brad Herried, Antarctic Cartographer

Mapping the bottom of the world — an Interview with Brad Herried, Antarctic Cartographer

Mapping Earth’s most remote continent presents a number of unique challenges. Antarctic cartographers and scientists are using some of the most advanced mapping technologies available to get a clearer picture of the continent. We asked Brad Herried, a Cartographer and Web Developer at the Polar Geospatial Center at the University of Minnesota, a few questions about what it’s like to do this unique job both on and off the ice.


Before we go too much further… what is the Polar Geospatial Center, and what does it do for polar science and scientists?

The Polar Geospatial Center (PGC), founded in 2007 by Director Paul Morin, is a research group of about 20 staff and students at the University of Minnesota with a simple mission: solve geospatial problems at the poles (Antarctica and the Arctic). Because we are funded (primarily) through the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA Cryospheric Sciences, that is the community we support – other U.S.-funded polar researchers. We provide custom maps, high-resolution commercial satellite imagery, and Geographic Information System (GIS) support for researchers who would like to use the data for their research but may not have the expertise to do so.

Our primary service is providing high-resolution satellite imagery (i.e. from the DigitalGlobe, Inc. constellation) to U.S.-funded polar researchers – at no additional cost to their grants – through licensing agreements with the U.S. Government. It has proven beneficial to researchers to have a service so that we do the hard parts of data management, remote sensing, and automation of satellite imagery processing so that they don’t have to. So, a glaciologist or geomorphologist or wildlife ecologist studying at the poles may come to us and say: I would like to use satellite imagery to study phenomenon x or y. Some groups use it just for logistics (these are some of the least mapped places on Earth after all) to get to their site. Some groups’ entire research is done using remote sensing.

What kinds of data and resources do you use?

The PGC’s polar archive of high-resolution commercial imagery is absolutely astounding (like, in the thousands of terabytes). The imagery, although licensed to us by U.S. Government contracts, is collected by the DigitalGlobe, Inc. constellation of satellites (e.g. WorldView-2), much like the imagery where you can see your house/car in Google Earth. The benefit is that we can provide it at no cost to our users (researchers). That resource, along with the expertise of the staff at PGC, can provide solutions to users, whether it’s making a simple map of a remote research site or providing a time-series of satellite imagery for a researcher studying change detection (like, say for a glacier front in Greenland).

This also presents a challenge. How do we manage and effectively deliver that much data? We have relied on skilled staff, ingenuity, cheap storage, high-performance computing, and automation to become successful.

As the saying goes, automate or die.

What’s your role at the PGC? How did you find your way into a job like this?

I started at the PGC as a graduate student in 2008. I knew nothing about Antarctica or the Arctic, but my background and studies in GIS & cartography offered a wide range of jobs. After I graduated, I became a full-time employee as the lead cartographer of the (at the time, very small) group. Currently, I do a lot more GIS web application development and geospatial data management. We have recognized the need for more automated, “self-service” systems for our users to get the data they need in a timely manner, and less of asking a PGC employee for a custom product. As the saying goes, automate or die. But, of course, I still spend a fair bit of my times creating maps to keep my cartographic juices going.

Antarctica and the South Polar Regions. Map from the American explorer Richard Byrd’s second expedition in 1933. [Credit: Byrd Antarctic Expeditions]

What kind of work do PGC employees do in Antarctica?

The PGC staffs an office at the United States’ McMurdo Station annually from October to February, with 3-5 staff rotating throughout the field season. It is really an extension of our responsibilities, with a couple interesting twists, both good and bad. First, a majority of our users (NSF-funded researchers) come through McMurdo Station in preparation for their fieldwork. It’s a beneficial and unique experience to meet with them one-on-one and solve problems, ironically, faster than email exchanges back in the States. Second – and this is true of all of Antarctica – the internet bandwidth is very limited. So, we have to a) prepare more regarding what data/imagery we have on site and b) do more with less. That always proves to be a fun challenge because it is impossible to access our entire archive of imagery from down there.

How could I forget collecting Google Street View in Antarctica.

There have been several years, however, when we do get to go out into the field! In past years, we have conducted various field campaigns in the nearby McMurdo Dry Valleys to collect survey ground control to make our satellite imagery more accurate. And, how could I forget collecting Google Street View (with some custom builds of the typical car-camera system for snowmobiles, heavy-duty trucks, and backpacks). The Google Street View provides a window into the world of Antarctica – history, facilities, science, and of course its beautiful landscapes – to a wide audience who only dream of visiting Antarctica.

Brad on a snowmobile collecting Google Street View imagery [Credit: Brad Herried]

What are some of the interesting projects PGC has worked on? What’s exciting at PGC right now?

The PGC does a lot to contribute to polar mapping. There’s not exactly a ton of geospatial data or maps for the polar regions, especially Antarctica. What data or maps there are, it is not often of very high quality. For example, there are regions of Antarctica (especially in inland East Antarctica) which have not been properly mapped or surveyed since the 1960s. Those maps offer little help if you’re trying to land an aircraft in the area. So, PGC has done a lot to improve that geospatial data including creating more accurate coastlines, improving geographic coordinates of named features (sometimes the location can be off by 10s of kilometers!), organizing historic aerial photography, and digitizing map collections. These are important to have, but it all changes when you can collect data 100 times more accurate with satellites…

There’s not exactly a ton of geospatial data or maps for the polar regions, especially Antarctica.

Where it gets really interesting is how we can apply our archive of satellite imagery to help researchers solve problems or come up with cutting-edge solutions with the data. One example is the ArcticDEM project. In a private-public collaboration, PGC is using high performance computing (HPC) to develop a pan-Arctic Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution 10 times better than what exists now. This project requires hundreds of thousands of stereoscopic satellite imagery pairs to be processed using photogrammetry techniques to build a three-dimensional model of the surface for the entire Arctic. There are countless more applications for the imagery and we’ll continue to push the limits of the technology to produce innovative products to help measure the Earth and solve really important research questions.

ArcticDEM hillshade in East Greenland. DEM(s) created by the Polar Geospatial Center from DigitalGlobe, Inc. imagery. [Credit: Brad Herried/ Polar Geospatial Center].

 

What resources can cryosphere researchers and other polar scientists without US funding get from PGC to enhance their research?

Our website provides a wealth of non-licensed data, freely available to download. That includes our polar map catalog (with over 2,000 historic maps of the polar regions), aerial photography, and elevation data. The ArcticDEM project I mentioned before is freely available (see https://www.pgc.umn.edu/data/arcticdem/), as are all DEMs created (derived) from the optical imagery. Moreover, we work with the international community on a regular basis to continue mapping efforts across both poles.

 

What advice do you have for students interested in a career in science or geospatial science?

This might be a little bit of a tangent, but learn to code. I was trained in cartography ten years ago and we hardly touched the command line. Now? You certainly don’t have to be an expert, say, Python programmer, but you’re behind if you don’t know how to automate some of your tasks, data processing, analysis, or other routine workflows. It allows you to focus on the things you’re actually an expert in (and, employers are most certainly looking for these skills).

ArcticDEM hillshade of Columbia Glacier, Alaska. DEM(s) created by the Polar Geospatial Center from DigitalGlobe, Inc. imagery. [Credit: Brad Herried/ Polar Geospatial Center].

Personally, what has been the highlight of your time at PGC so far?

I will never forget the first time I stepped off the plane landing in Antarctica as a graduate student. A surreal, breathtaking (literally), and completely foreign feeling. To be able to experience the most remote places on Earth first-hand naturally leads to a better understanding of them. So, the highlight for me is this: I find myself asking more questions, talking to the preeminent researchers and students about their work, and discovering the purpose of it all. I may be a small piece in the puzzle of understanding our Earth’s poles, but I’m humbled to be a part.

Interview and Editing by George Roth, Additional Editing by Sophie Berger

Image of the Week — We’re heading for Vienna

Image of the Week — We’re heading for Vienna
Tatata taaa tatatatata Tatata taaa tatatatatatatata
We’re heading for Vienna (Vienna)
And still we stand tall
‘Cause maybe they’ve seen us (seen us)
And welcome us all, yeah
With so many miles left to go
And things to be found (to be found)
I’m sure that we’ll all miss that so
it’s the … 
…congratulations, you’ve recognise the song…..it is the Final Countdown (slightly adapted!)

With the EGU general assembly starting in two days only, we hope that your presentations are almost ready that you haven’t forgotten to include in your programme all the cool stuff listed in our cryo-guide!

 

However, if you don’t have time to read it all, please make sure you’ve heard of these 3 events :
  1. the pre-icebreaker meet up on Sunday 23rd from 16:00 aida (close to Stefanplatz)
  2. the Cryoblog lunch on Tuesday 25th 12:15 in front of the entrance.
    If you like this blog, are curious about it and would like to contribute to it  — directly and/or indirectly — please come and meet us on Tuesday (for more information please email sberger@ulb.ac.be or emma.smith@awi.de)
  3. the cryo night out on Thursday 27th from 19:30 at Wieden Braü

 

See you in Vienna!

PS: We take no responsibility for anyone who finds they have Final Countdown stuck in their head all week! (♪ Tatata taaa tatatatata Tatata taaa tatatatatatatata ♫)

Edited by Emma Smith

A brief guide to navigating EGU 2017!

A brief guide to navigating EGU 2017!

Are you going to the EGU General Assembly in Vienna next week? If so, read on for a quick guide to navigating the week: Where to start, what to see and how to meet people and enjoy yourself! After all, the meeting is as much about the opportunities meet scientists from all over the world as it is about the science itself.


How on Earth do I know what is going on?!

The EGU General Assembly is a massive meeting with many parallel session, short courses, medal lectures and much more. So how do you know what is going on and when, and how can you effectively keep track of it all? The simplest way is to use the online EGU program – it has options to browse sessions of interest chronologically or by discipline. You can simply click on a session or an individual presentation to add it to your personal programme. You can then view your personal program online, print it as a PDF or if you have a smartphone you can also use the EGU2017 mobile app to keep track of your personal program on the go – scan the QR code to download it or click here from your smartphone.

Don’t forget to keep track of the twitter hastag #EGU17 to see what is happening on a second by second basis and also the #CryoEGU17 hashtag for up-to-date cryosphere news.


Short courses

Short courses at EGU are designed to give you an insight into a certain area or topic and cover all sorts of subjects and skills. There are many courses running at EGU this year – we have highlighted a few below, but be sure to check out the full list in the online program. Short courses provide a great chance to learn about a topic, skill or piece of software that has been on your to do list, so why not drop by and meet the experts who have kindly agreed to participate and share their knowledge?

How to navigate EGU: tips & tricks

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 08:30–10:00,  Room -2.31

Held first thing on Monday morning, this could be just the session you need to get your week off to a productive start!

Quantarctica

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 13:30–15:00, Room -2.31

Are you working on Antarctica data and getting to grips with GIS? Then this course is for you! The User Workshop is aimed at beginning and intermediate GIS users and Antarctic researchers interested in learning how to integrate, analyze, and present their own research data with the free, open-source, cross-platform QGIS software. Participants should install and test the latest version of the Quantarctica package on their laptops prior to arriving at the workshop.

Crashing the Cryosphere

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 15:30–17:00, Room -2.16

This is one to tell your cryo-curious friends from other divisions about!  We are inviting scientists from all areas to join us in “gate-crashing” the Cryosphere Division and learn about how topics in cryospheric science are relevant to their research. During the short course, four cryosphere experts will introduce their research, giving you the background to venture further into cryospheric topics during the rest of the meeting.

  • Keynote Intro: Olaf Eisen (The AWI, DE and head of EGU Cryosphere Division)
  • Ice-Ocean interaction: Inga Koszalka (GEOMAR, Kiel, DE)
  • The Arctic Atmosphere : John Prytherch (MISU, Stockholm, SE)
  • Avalanches: Thierry Faug (Irstea, FR)
  • GIA/Solid Earth: Valentina Barletta (DTU, DK)

Communicating Climate Change – blogging as a group

When and Where: Wed, 26 Apr, 13:30–15:00, Room -2.85

Blogs are a great way to communicate your science, but where do you start? This interactive short course will begin with an introduction from Mathew Reeve, founder of ClimateSnack. It will then be over to you to get some practice experience at editing a blog post – turning an awful draft into a pleasant and clear blog post. Please bring a pen and paper.

Successful strategies to design, develop and write a scientific paper

When and Where: Wed, 26 Apr, 17:30–19:00, Room N2

An essential part of a career in research is publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals. This means responding to reviews of your own work and reviewing the work of other scientists. In this short course you will get the chance to learn how to navigate the review process. The course will start with some advice, tip and tricks from Benjamin Rabe (Researcher, AWI, Germany), Julienne Stroeve (Senior Research Scientist, NSIDC, USA), Tom Coulthard (Professor of Physical Geography, University of Hull, UK) and Paul Cumine (Publisher, Geophysics and Oil & Gas Journals, Elsevier Ltd., UK) before a panel discussion to allow you to get answers to those burning questions you may have!

Polar Science Career Panel (EGU Cryosphere and APECS)

When and Where: Thu, 27 Apr, 15:30–17:00, Room -2.16

Many early career scientists come to EGU looking for inspiration to take the next step in their careers. There are so many opportunities both academic and elsewhere that it can be daunting to know where to start looking and what the options are. Join us for a panel discussion about everything to do with life post-polar-PhD and expand your ideas about where you might go next. Our panelists are:

  • Felicity Liggins (Climate Scientist and Outreach Program Manager, Met Office, UK)
  • Robert McSweeney (Science Writer, Carbon Brief)
  • Lindsey Nicholson (PostDoc, Uni. Innsbruck, Austria)
  • Kerim Nisancioglu (Prof. Of Earth Sciences, Uni. Bergen, Norway)
  • Wiebke Schubotz (Project Coordinator of HD(CP)², Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany)


Social event for Early Career Cryosphere Scientists!

So you have an idea of what scientific stuff is going on, but there is, of course, another important aspect to any conference…. they are a great place to socialise! However, it can be very daunting to know how and where to meet people at such a large meeting. This year the EGU Cryosphere team are organising two social events joint with APECS as well as a lunch for anyone who is interested in joining our blog team – also don’t forget the March for Science taking place on Saturday the 22nd April.

Pre-Icebreaker Meet Up

The conference icebreaker can be a daunting experience to attend alone but it is a great event to go along to. We are organising a friendly pre-icebreaker meet up for cryospheric ECSs on Sunday 23rd from 16:00We will meet at a yet-to-be-determined cafe in Vienna, have a chat, do some networking, have a cake and then head to the EGU conference centre together in time for the icebreaker. Keep your eyes on the Facebook event for more details!

Cryo Night Out!

On Thursday evening (27th), after the Polar Science Career Panel there will be a joint APECS and EGU Cryosphere division night out. We will be leaving from the conference centre after the panel session (Room -2.16) and heading for Wieden Braü for food and drinks, you can walk down with us as a group or meet there at 19:30. If you would like to eat please fill out the Facebook poll to give us an idea of numbers! Hopefully see plenty of faces old and new there 😀

EGU Cryosphere Bloggers Lunch

An informal lunch meeting for anyone interested in getting involved in the EGU Cryosphere blog on Tuesday 25th. Meet in front of the main entrance at 12:15 and we will decide on where to go depending on the weather. Please email the editors Emma (emma.smith@awi.de) or Sophie (sberger@ulb.ac.be) if you want to come along but aren’t sure who to look for. As an extra incentive Sophie will be bringing some Belgian chocolate!!

Ice Core Young Scientist (ICYS) social

Early-career scientists with an interest in ice cores are invited to join the Ice Core Young Scientists (ICYS) for a get-together with drinks and/or dinner on Tuesday 25th, from 18:30 (more details on facebook).
The get-together will take place at Café Einstein, Rathausplatz 4, Vienna . For those going directly from the conference venue, we will be leaving from there at 17:45, and you can find us (Mai Winstrup & Emma Kahle) by the main entrance.

March for Science

The day before the official start of the EGU GA (Saturday 22nd April) is Earth Day. On this day scientists and science enthusiasts across the globe will be marching to celebrate science and to call for the safeguarding of its future. A satellite march organised by local researchers is taking place in Vienna. If you are going to be in Vienna on the Saturday then it is a great chance to get involved – find out more details, including where and when to meet, on the EGU blog.


Am I an ECS?

The EGU officially defines an Early Career Scientist (ECS) as:

an undergraduate or postgraduate (Masters/PhD) student or a scientist who has received his or her highest degree (BSc, MSc, or PhD) within the past seven years  (where appropriate, up to one year of parental leave time may be added per child).

However, everyone is of course more than welcome to come along and  attend the short courses and social events organised by your ECS team, the more the merrier!


General Advice….

The General Assembly can be an overwhelming experience. Here are some tips from the EGU Cryosphere’s esteemed ECS representative Nanna Karlsson:

  • Take advantage of the lunch breaks and go for a walk! When you exit the main conference building turn left and head for the river, or turn right and you will find that behind the concrete buildings there is a very nice park.
  • Go to a session outside your field or area of interest. Even in completely different research topics, I often find similarities in methods or applications that inspire me to think differently about my own research.
  • Explore Vienna and treat yourself to a bit of time off to recover during the week. If your programme is completely packed, then hurry to the U-Bahn in a lunch break (the ticket is after all included in the registration fee) and go to the centre of town. Half an hour’s stroll will give you at least an impression of the city and you will not leave Vienna with the feeling that you have really only seen the conference centre.

Edited by Nanna Karlsson

Image of the Week — FRISP 2016

Image of the Week — FRISP 2016

The Forum for Research into Ice Shelf Processes, aka FRISP, is an international meeting bringing together glaciologists and oceanographers. There are no parallel sessions; everyone attends everyone else’s talk and comment on their results, and the numerous breaks and long dinners encourage new and interdisciplinary collaborations. In fact, each year, a few presentations are the result of a previous year’s question!

The location changes every year, moving around the institutions that are involved with Arctic and Antarctic research. The 2016 edition just occurred this week, 3rd – 6th October, in a marine research station of the University of Gothenburg, in the beautiful Gullmarn Fjord.

Each year, a few presentations are the result of a previous year’s question!

Fjord at the sunset [Credit: Céline Heuzé]

Gullmarn fjord at the sunset [Credit: Céline Heuzé]

70 participants from 37 institutions:

  • Attended 49 talks on model results, new observation techniques, and everything in between;

  • Spent more than 15h discussing these results, including 2h around 15 posters;

  • Drank 50 L of coffee, 60 L of tea, 20 L of lingon juice… and a fair amount of wine!

Poster session at the FRISP 2016 meeting. [Credit: Céline Heuzé]

Poster session at the FRISP 2016 meeting. [Credit: Céline Heuzé]

I can’t really choose THE highlight of the conference.
As an organiser, it was a real pleasure to simply see it happen after all the long hours of planning.
As a scientist, it was a great and productive meeting, giving me new ideas and the opportunity to discuss my recent work with the big names of the field in a friendly environment.
And as a human, I enjoyed most the under-ice footages, and in particular the general ”ooooh” that came from the audience.

It was a bit sad to say goodbye to the participants, old friends and new collaborators. But I know that I will see them again during FRISP 2017… and I hope to see you there as well!

 Edited by Sophie Berger and Emma Smith

Fieldwork at 5,000 meters in altitude

Fieldwork at 5,000 meters in altitude

Imja Lake is one of the largest glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya and has received a great deal of attention in the last couple decades due to the potential for a glacial lake outburst flood. In response to these concerns, the UNDP has funded a project that is currently lowering the level of the lake by 3 m to reduce the flood hazard. The aim of our research efforts is to understand how quickly the glacier is melting and how rapidly the lake is expanding such that we can model the flood hazard in the future. The focus of this research expedition was to install an automatic weather station, measure the thickness of the ice behind the calving front of Imja Lake, and measure the bathymetry of Imja Lake amongst other smaller tasks.

However, before any work could be done, we had to get there first.

The 8-day trek from Lukla to Imja Lake [Credit: GoogleEarth]

The 8-day trek from Lukla to Imja Lake [Credit: GoogleEarth]

The long trek in

Tenzing-Hillary Airport in Lukla, at an altitude of 2,845 m [Credit: D. Rounce]

Tenzing-Hillary Airport in Lukla, at an altitude of 2,845 m [Credit: D. Rounce]

The launch point for our expedition was Kathmandu, Nepal, where we met with our trekking agency, Himalayan Research Expedition, purchased any last minute supplies, and took a day to kick our jet lag. Then the real trip began with a flight from Kathmandu to Lukla. Depending on the weather, this flight can be smooth and showcase the splendor of the Himalaya or it can be nerve-wracking flying through turbulence and clouds. Unfortunately, we had the latter and spent most of the 30-minute class flying through white clouds. Once our feet touched the ground at Tenzing-Hillary Airport, we were all excited and ready to start trekking.

Located at 5010 m above sea level (a.s.l) in the Everest region of the Himalaya, Imja Lake required 8 days of trekking to reach our base camp. The first 6 days followed the route to Everest Base Camp and provided the first glimpses of Everest, Lhotse, and Ama Dablam among many others. Due to the late start of our trek on May 29th, the monsoon clouds often blocked most of these peaks, so whenever the skies did clear we enjoyed them thoroughly. The 8-day trek also included two rest days (one in Namche and one in Dingboche) that were critical to be properly acclimated. The general rule of thumb that we follow is an acclimatization day for every 1,000 m of elevation gain. After the first rest day at Namche, at 3,400 m.a.s.l., the effects of altitude began to set in. The trekking slowed down as oxygen was a bit harder to come by. By the time we reached Imja Lake, there was about half as much oxygen as there is at sea level.

At 5,000 meters in altitude there is about half as much oxygen as there is at sea level

Imja Lake looked…different

The team at our base camp at Imja Lake [Credit: D. Rounce]

The team at our base camp at Imja Lake [Credit: D. Rounce]

I was beyond excited to be back at Imja Lake. This was my 5th time at the lake and this time I was accompanied by a great team of colleagues. This project is funded by the NSF’s Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems (CNH) program and is led by Daene McKinney (University of Texas), Alton Byers (University of Colorado Boulder), and Milan Shrestha (Arizona State University). One of the great aspects of this trip was we were all able to be in the field at the same time providing an excellent mix of fieldwork on the glacier and social science work with the communities downstream. My group consisted of myself, Greta Wells from the University of Texas, Jonathan Burton from Brigham Young University, Alina Karki from Tribhuvan University, and eight hard-working individuals from our trekking agency (unfortunately, Daene was with us, but had to leave the expedition early).

The first drastic change that we saw when we got to Imja Lake was the large camp set up by the Army to work on the lake-lowering project. Usually, the only people that we see up here are people at Island Peak base camp, but now the location where were typically set up camp was packed with tents for the workers. The next surprise was seeing a backhoe operating on the terminal moraine (the natural dam comprising sand, rocks, and boulders). Typically, once you get off the plane in Lukla, you don’t see any motorized transportation besides the occasional helicopter flying to Everest Base Camp, so seeing this large piece of construction machinery was quite surprising! The lake lowering project was fascinating to see in progress. A cougher dam has been established to divert the outlet stream such that the typical outlet can be dredged and an outlet gate established, which will reduce the lake level by 3 m. This is a large undertaking due to the difficulty of working at 5,000 m (for both the workers and the machinery), but is an excellent step forward for Nepal in addressing the hazards associated with their glacial lakes.

The lowering project at Imja Lake in progress [Credit: D. Rounce]

The lowering project in progress at Imja Lake, with a backhoe working on a terminal moraine [Credit: D. Rounce]

Seeing this large piece of construction machinery [at that altitude] was quite surprising!

Let the work begin

On June 6th, we woke up at 6:00 a.m. to pure fog and limited visibility – not the weather you hope for on your first day of fieldwork. Fortunately, the fog burned off as the sun came up giving us a nice partly cloudy day to perform our reconnaissance of the glacier for the upcoming work. The first task was figuring out how to get onto the glacier from the lateral moraines (the sides of the glacier). This may sound trivial, but the glacier has melted such that the lateral moraines are now over 100 m higher than the debris-covered glacier surface and their slopes are very steep, which makes descending down them quite difficult. Fortunately, we found a good spot near Island Peak base camp, where Laxmi (our guide) set a rope and cleared the path of loose rocks and boulders.

Arduous descent onto the glacier [Credit: D. Rounce]

Arduous descent onto the glacier [Credit: D. Rounce]

The glacier has melted such that the lateral moraines are now over 100 m higher

utomatic Weather Station on Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier [Credit: D. Rounce]

Automatic Weather Station on Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier [Credit: D. Rounce]

Once on the glacier, we were tasked with determining the location of the weather station and wind tower in addition to finding potential routes for our Ground Penetrating Radar transects. The problem with Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier is there are very few suitable flat spots. The debris cover on the glacier consists of fine sands, gravel, and boulders with melt ponds and bare ice faces scattered over the surface. The thickness of the debris can range from these bare ice faces to a thin cover of a few centimetres to many meters thick. Needless to say, the heterogeneous terrain can make walking on its surface quite difficult. My initial thought was to use a location where we had installed temperature sensors and ablation stakes two years ago; however, this site had turned into a melt pond ! Hence, we need to select a spot that seems relatively stable such that it won’t be in the middle of a pond when we return!

After many hours of trekking on the glacier, we returned to camp fatigued. The altitude wears you down quickly, especially in the first couple of days, so it’s crucial to stay hydrated, warm, and well rested such that we can work hard for all of the 16 scheduled days that we were out here. I find the first couple days to be the most difficult as my body adjusts to the limited supply of oxygen and for the first 2-3 days I typically have a mild headache in the afternoon. A good meal of dal baht (rice, lentil soup, and typically a meat or vegetable curry) along with a good night’s sleep and a little ibuprofen does the trick to have me feeling refreshed the next day though.

The fieldwork

The first task was to set up the weather station and wind tower. The weather station will record meteorological data every 30 minutes that is important for energy balance modelling. This will allow us to model melt rates that can be applied to the entire glacier such that we can understand the evolution of the debris-covered glacier – crucial for future hazard modelling! The wind tower allows us to measure the surface roughness of the topography, which influences the turbulent heat flux transfers, i.e., the transfer of heat and moisture between the surface of the debris and the air – an important debris property to measure for energy balance modelling as well. Additionally, beneath the weather station, we installed temperature and relative humidity sensors within the debris such that we can understand how heat is transferred through the debris. Each piece of equipment has an essential role in the energy balance modelling.

The other large undertaking in the first week was performing ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects on Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier. GPR is a geophysical technique that is used to measure and detect objects beneath the surface. In our case, we’ll be trying to measure the ice thickness of the glacier.

Ground Penetrating Radar in short

Ground Penetrating Radar survey in action [Credit: D. Rounce]

Ground Penetrating Radar survey in action [Credit: D. Rounce]

The quick and dirty of GPR is you have a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter sends a great deal of energy into the ground, which then reflects off various surface, e.g., we should see a strong reflection at the ice/rock interface, and this reflected signal is then picked up by the receiver. Sounds easy right?
Things become a bit more difficult when you get on the debris-covered glacier and everything must be carried or dragged across the surface. This requires a lot of people such that the antennas don’t get stuck on the boulders, requires everyone to be walking at the same speed, and requires that all the electrical connections, batteries, etc. are secure and operating.
In a nutshell, it is a great deal of work, but provides an excellent dataset to understand the extent to which glacial lakes may grow in the future.
When this ice thickness is paired with lake expansion rates, one can predict the evolution of the glacial lake, which is critical for understanding the future hazard associated with Imja Lake. Two full days were spent climbing over the glacier, around bare ice faces and melt ponds, and attempting to collect transects that provide a good picture of the ice thickness behind the calving front of Imja Lake. During these days, we completed half of our planned transects and were ready for our first day of rest.

A flood and a community meeting

After 6 days of hard work, I was exhausted. The plan was to hike down to Chukung at 4700 m.a.s.l., where we would stay for two nights. A change in 300 m may not sound like a lot, but at altitude, this can provide a great boost in energy. During our “rest day” in Chukung, we were planning to hike down to Dingboche (4400 m.a.s.l.) to help out with a focus group session with the community led by Milan. What happened next was completely unexpected… we witnessed a glacier flood!

We witnessed a glacier flood!

A glacier flood threatened the village of Chukung [Credit: D. Rounce]

A glacier flood threatened the village of Chukung [Credit: D. Rounce]

Our colleagues Alton and Elizabeth Byers were heading down to Dingboche before us. Along the way, they heard the sound of a landslide and when they checked to see what it was they were surprised to witness the start of a glacier flood. These floods appeared to have originated from the drainage of supraglacial lakes on Lhotse Glacier and appeared to have discharged through a series of englacial conduits. This englacial conduit flood grew rapidly as the initial flood continued to melt the surrounding ice. The videos that Elizabeth took were absolutely remarkable and fortunately everyone in Chukung was safe. By the time we arrived at the typical crossing point around 3:00 p.m., the flood had supposedly diminished by quite a bit, but was still very powerful. We ended up having to an hour detour over an ice bridge (literally a place on the glacier where the flood had carved into the ice and was going underneath the glacier such that we could walk above the flood on the debris-covered surface). It was truly fascinating to witness a flood from a glacier. When we arrived at Chukung, we made the decision to continue hiking to Dingboche such that we were safely out of the potential flooded area.

The energy in Dingboche was electric. Our entire NSF group was in the lodge and eager to talk to one another. The flood had also sparked a great deal of interest with community members as they witnessed the flood coming downstream and were fortunately able to contact members in Chukung to learn that this was not a larger glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) from Imja Lake, which alleviated a great deal of concern. After a good meal and great conversation, we were all exhausted and went to bed early (not to mention that for the first time in over a week we were able to reconnect and update family and friends on the internet, which was a wonderful treat as well). The next day we were able to sit in on Milan’s focus group session with the members of Dingboche. From my background in engineering, I was fascinated to see first-hand the important work that Milan was conducting with the community. The community member’s interest and questions were very inspiring. For many years, these communities have seen researchers come to Imja Lake and not share any of their results. This has led to a great deal of skepticism and also led to unnecessary fear and/or panic, so every opportunity that we have to share our results and have a dialogue with the community is crucial. It is wonderful to be working with Milan as his work is a wonderful vessel for us to learn about the community’s concerns and vice versa, for us to share our work with them as well. I’m incredibly excited to see how this work progresses and see the field science and the social science come together.

The community of Dingboche [Credit: D. Rounce]

The community of Dingboche [Credit: D. Rounce]

Every opportunity that we have to share our results and have a dialogue with the [local] community is crucial

Finishing off the fieldwork

After a day of “rest” in Dingboche, our team was ready to get back to work at Imja Lake. The first task was more GPR transects on the glacier. The benefit was that we were all feeling rejuvenated from our days at lower elevations and now that this was our 3rd day of GPR things were running smoothly.

The other benefit was that after almost 10 days at 5000 m.a.s.l. our bodies were feeling well adjusted to the limited supply of oxygen. The headaches that came and went over the first couple days were non-existent. The only downfall was we were now getting into the heart of the monsoon season, where clouds came up the valley every morning and it rained almost every afternoon. The work had to go on though, so we simply shifted our wake-up time an hour earlier in an attempt to avoid the rain.

Greta Wells and Jonathan Burton conducting a bathymetric survey on Imja Lake [Credit: G. Wells]

Greta Wells and Jonathan Burton conducting a bathymetric survey on Imja Lake [Credit: G. Wells]

As our days were winding down, it was time to start splitting up the group. Jonathan and Greta became our kayaking experts and quickly became adept at working the sonar system to conduct a bathymetric survey of Imja Lake. The bathymetric survey is a remarkable experience and one that Jonathan and Greta seemed to thoroughly enjoy. The calving front of Imja Lake is ~10-20 m tall, which seems huge from the view of a kayak on the water. Furthermore, the calving front is quite active each year, so there are icebergs floating on the surface that provide some fun obstacles during the survey. They did a wonderful job and I am incredibly thankful for their support.

While the bathymetric survey was being conducted, Alina and I worked on the Structure from Motion (SfM) survey and the operation of the differential GPS (dGPS). Structure from Motion is a technique that allows us to take hundreds of pictures of the debris-covered surface and transform these pictures into a digital elevation model using the software PhotoScan Pro.

differential GPS measurement of a ground control point [Credit: D. Rounce]

differential GPS measurement of a ground control point [Credit: D. Rounce]

This technique requires ground control points, which is where the dGPS comes into play. The differential GPS provides centimetric accuracy of specific points on the glacier (in our case spray painted boulders), which provide the spatial scale for the digital elevation model. We had ~40 ground control points and each point took approximately 10 minutes to measure… hence, the dGPS survey was a great deal of work. Once again, I have to thank my wonderful colleague, Alina, for her hardwork operating the dGPS with me.

The bathymetric survey, SfM, dGPS, and GPR transects occupied all of our remaining time on the glacier. Two days before I left the glacier, I sent our team members off to visit Everest Base Camp and Kala Patthar as the only activities left were finishing off the dGPS survey and downloading the last bit of meteorological data from the weather station. The trek to Everest Base Camp takes about 2 days from our site and I was glad that they would have an opportunity to go visit – they certainly deserved it. Perhaps one of the best surprises of the trip was the day that Jonathan, Greta, and Alina went to Kala Patthar, they had a couple hours of clear skies in the morning such that they were able to see Everest! What a better way to end the trip for them. On my side, the last couple days went very smoothly and I was ecstatic with all the work that we had accomplished. 16 days of hard work paid off and I am anxiously waiting for us to return and collect all the remaining data next year!

Acknowledgements

A special thanks to the NSF-CNH program for funding this research. Also a big thanks to my colleagues Daene McKinney, Alton Byers, Elizabeth Byers, Milan Shrestha, Greta Wells, Jonathan Burton, and Alina Karki among the countless others who were with Alton and Milan’s groups. Lastly, this work would not be possible without the tremendous effort and support provided by Himalayan Research Expedition and our team of guides, porters, and cooks.

For more details on the trip, see: http://davidrounce.weebly.com/imja-lake-live-2016

Edited by Sophie Berger