GeoLog

Biogeosciences

Imaggeo on Mondays: Rocks weather, soil takes form

Imaggeo on Mondays: Rocks weather, soil takes form

This image depicts the soil formation, that is weathering of rock. Soil is actually formed by weathering of rock by physical, chemical and biological methods. This image depicts physical and biological weathering. Physical weathering by the action of temperature and biological weathering by the growth of some species of grass through the cracks. Image clicked from Trivandrum district of Kerala, India.

Description by Alwyn Biju, as it first appeared on imaggeo.egu.eu

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Conversations on a century of geoscience in Europe: Part 2

Conversations on a century of geoscience in Europe: Part 2

When you think about the last century of geoscience, what comes to mind? Perhaps Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift? Or Inge Lehmann’s discovery of Earth’s solid inner core?

Over the last 100 years, geoscientists have made incredible contributions to our understanding of the Earth, the solar system, and beyond. The science community has explored uncharted territory, challenged previously held conceptions, provided vital information to policymakers, worked to address societal challenges, and put forth paths for sustainability. Through the years, researchers have also worked to promote diversity, inclusion, transparency, and accessibility in the geosciences. Many Europe-based scientists have been at the forefront of these advances.

Inspired by the centennials of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), which were both founded in 1919, we would like to highlight Europe’s role in shaping the geosciences and the great achievements of European geoscientists within the last century.

In this series of interviews, scientists across different disciplines and scientific fields reflect on the last 100 years of Earth, space and planetary sciences in Europe and share their perspectives on the future:


Karsten Gohl: Head of Geophysics Section at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research

One of the broadest achievements in the geosciences in the last century is the transformation from individual discipline-oriented foci to an understanding of the interacting components of the entire Earth system in its complexity.

 

 

 

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Anny Cazenave: Director for Earth Sciences at the International Space Science Institute in Switzerland, and emeritus scientist at the Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (LEGOS)

Current research in Earth sciences needs to account for the impacts of human activities on the Earth System… as well as for the impacts of natural systems on human societies.

 

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Mioara Mandea: Programme Manager for the Solid Earth Observation / Directorate of Innovation, Applications and Science at the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (French Space Agency)

A large number of European scientists has influenced my work over the last decades, and I would like to thank each and every one for support and guidance.

 

 

 

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Judith A. McKenzie: Professor em. of Earth System Sciences in the Geological Institute, Department of Earth Sciences at the ETH Zurich

Meeting these challenges from a geologic prospective will be essential for the survival of the quality of life that we have come to expect in Europe during the last century.

 

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Interviews by Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer

 

You can find more of our interviews on a century of geoscience in Europe here:

Part 1

 

Imaggeo on Mondays: An expedition to better understand Antarctic soils

Imaggeo on Mondays: An expedition to better understand Antarctic soils

A dramatic evening sky puts the frame to a photo taken during the Brazilian Antarctic expedition to James Ross Island in 2016. Brazilian palaeontologists and soil scientists together with German soil scientists spent over 40 days on the island to search for fossils and sample soils at various locations of the northern part of the island.

The island was named after Sir James Clark Ross who led the British expedition in 1842, which first charted locations at the eastern part of the island. James Ross Island is part of Graham Land, the northern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, separated from South America by the stormy Drake sea passage.

Map of the Antarctic Peninsula featuring the James Ross Archipelago (Credit: The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Antarctic Digital Database Map Viewer)

This photo was taken in the northern Ulu Peninsula, which is the northernmost part of the relatively large James Ross Island and the largest ice-free area in the Antarctic Peninsula region. The island’s characteristic appearance is formed by Late Neogene volcanic rocks (3-7 million years old) over fossil rich Late Cretaceous sandstones (66-120 million years old).

In the photo we are looking from a higher marine terrace at the Santa Martha Cove, the ‘home’ to the 2016 Brazilian Antarctic expedition, towards the steep cliffs of Lachman Crags, a characteristic mesa formed by Late Neogene lava flows. The Lachman Crags mesa, the Spanish word for tablelands, dominates the landscape of the northern part of the Ulu Peninsula. Above the cliffs visible in the photo, a glacier covered plateau stretches to the Northwest.

The marine terrace on which the tent is standing is comprised of a flat area that has been ice-free for approximately 6000 years and thus makes for a great model system to study soil development after glacial retreat. The ground is composed of a mixture of volcanic rocks and Cretaceous sandstones rich in all sorts of fossils, from fossilised wood to shark teeth, ammonites and reptile bones.

The strong winds that can start in Antarctica from one moment to the other and the very low precipitation led to the characteristic desert pavement, with stones sorted in a flat arrangement on top of the fine textured, deeply weathered permafrost soils. Although these soils host a surprisingly high number of microorganisms, most terrestrial life is restricted to wetter areas surrounding fresh water lakes and melt water streams. Thus lakes and snow meltwater-fed areas make for higher primary production of algae and mosses, fostering biodiversity and soil development by organic matter input.

As there are no larger bird rookeries on James Ross Island the only way sea-derived nutrients reach the Ulu Peninsula is by a rather grim feature:  dead seal carcasses that lie distributed across the lowlands (< 150 m asl) of the Ulu Peninsula. Carcasses fertilise the soils in their direct vicinity while slowly decomposing over decades, thus feeding small patches of lichens and mosses within the barren cold arid desert. The region is thus an illustration of the harsh Antarctic environment where even Weddell seals, animals that are well adapted for the living in dense pack ice during the polar night, die when losing track on land on the way to the water.

By Carsten Müller, Technical University of Munich Chair of Soil Science, Germany

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Conversations on a century of geoscience in Europe: Part 1

Conversations on a century of geoscience in Europe: Part 1

When you think about the last century of geoscience, what comes to mind? Perhaps Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift? Or Inge Lehmann’s discovery of Earth’s solid inner core?

Over the last 100 years, geoscientists have made incredible contributions to our understanding of the Earth, the solar system, and beyond. The science community has explored uncharted territory, challenged previously held conceptions, provided vital information to policymakers, worked to address societal challenges, and put forth paths for sustainability. Through the years, researchers have also worked to promote diversity, inclusion, transparency, and accessibility in the geosciences. Many Europe-based scientists have been at the forefront of these advances.

Inspired by the centennials of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), which were both founded in 1919, we would like to highlight Europe’s role in shaping the geosciences and the great achievements of European geoscientists within the last century.

In this series of interviews, scientists across different disciplines and scientific fields reflect on the last 100 years of Earth, space and planetary sciences in Europe and share their perspectives on the future:


Anne-Marie Treguier: Research Director at the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the European Institute for Marine Studies in the Ocean Physics Laboratory

The responsibility of geoscientists is huge. We must frame our scientific questions in the context of a wide range of future scenarios..

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John Burrows: Professor of the Physics of the Ocean and Atmosphere and a Director of the Institutes of Environmental Physics and Remote Sensing at the University of Bremen

The history of discoveries in the geosciences is a fascinating story, involving unexpected and perplexing observations..

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Günter Blöschl: Head of the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management and Director of the Centre for Water Resource Systems of the Vienna University of Technology

As Heraclitus said, there is nothing permanent except change. Innovation needs to be permanent. We are in for an exciting future..

 

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Antje Boetius: Director of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research and Professor of Geomicrobiology at the University of Bremen

When one reads the original reports and letters, we can learn how relevant expeditions and fieldwork were – and still are – for the international, collaborative spirit of the geosciences worldwide. The amazing thing is, in many ways we have remained explorers of our own planet Earth even today..

 

 

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Bernhard Diekmann, Head of the Research Unit Potsdam of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research and Professor of Quaternary Geology at Potsdam University

During the last 100 years, the focus in geological research was understanding of processes in Earth’s interior and skin…The geosciences should no longer be seen as an individual field of research, but must be integrated into a holistic view of natural and social sciences..

 

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Interviews by Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer