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GIFT at the Assembly: Mineral Resources

GIFT at the Assembly: Mineral Resources

The EGU’s Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) programme offers teachers attending the conference the opportunity to hone their Earth science skills. The General Assembly workshop is one of GIFT’s most important activities of the year, combining talks on current research with hands-on activities presented by educators. What’s more, scientists can also come to the sessions – here’s what’s in store…

The theme of this year’s GIFT workshop (EOS1) is Mineral Resources – the event will explore one of the most important challenges faced by modern society: access to raw materials, including base and strategic minerals, in a rapidly developing and growing world. Featuring talks by leading scientists in the field, the workshop will kick off with a discussion on raw materials and their sustainability in the 21st century (at 8:45 in Room G10). This is followed by two great talks on where do minerals come from and how they get there, by Laurence Robb of the University of Oxford, after which you can learn about the role of inorganic chemistry in the formation of ore deposits at the hands of Kliti Grice from Curtin University, Australia. This is just a taster, though – you can find out more about the workshop here.

GeoEd: Lessons from the EGU 2014 GIFT Workshop

Today’s GeoEd post is brought to you by Susan Tate, an 8th grade teacher from Michigan in the USA. Susan attended the GIFT workshop held during the General Assembly last year.  The GIFT programme offers primary school to high school teachers the opportunity to upgrade their knowledge in geophysical themes and to shorten the time between new discoveries and textbook information. After three days supercharging her geosciences knowledge at the 2014 conference, Susan shares her perspective on the GIFT workshops.

What do you get when you combine a three-day Earth science workshop, world-renowned scientists, inspirational fellow teacher-participants, and one of the most beautiful, historical and culturally-rich cities in Europe? Answer: an opportunity of a lifetime for this small town Midwestern teacher, who had never even traveled to Europe before.

As a recipient of the William Goree Award for 2014, I would be experiencing the European Geosciences Union GIFT (Geosciences Information For Teachers) workshop in Vienna, Austria, fully funded by 2G-Enterprises (the company founded by the late William Goree and William Goodman), EDUGEA (an educational association in France), and EGU. I learned of the EGU GIFT workshop and the scholarship opportunity from an announcement in a NESTA newsletter in November of 2013. When I asked my principal for permission to apply—as I would be missing four days of school if selected—I told him that it was definitely a long-shot, but it would be a dream come true to attend. Imagine my excitement when I got an email in mid-December notifying me that I was to receive the Goree Award!

I spent the next few months preparing for my late April trip, and at the recommendation of Dr. Carlo Laj, chairman of the EGU Committee on Education, and Dr. Stephen Macko, a professor at the University of Virginia who serves on the committee, I was in frequent contact with Abigail Morton, a Pennsylvania teacher who had received the Goree Award the previous year. Armed with insider knowledge, abundant excitement to see the beautiful city of Vienna, and growing curiosity about the workshop speakers and participants, I stepped off the plane early on the morning of Sunday, April 27th ready to soak it all in.

Susan at the Rocks of the Earth exhibition at European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014. (Credit: Susan Tate)

Susan at the Rocks of the Earth exhibition at European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014. (Credit: Susan Tate)

The program began with a pre-workshop reception and guided tour of the Vienna Museum of Natural History. This museum, celebrating its 125th anniversary this year, is located in the heart of the historic section of the city. As I wandered through the astounding collection of rocks, minerals, and fossils, Dr. Macko informed me that the museum houses the oldest and largest public collection of meteorites in the world! At the museum I met the other American teachers in attendance, including four Einstein fellows who were working with NSF and NOAA. The conference had not yet officially begun and I knew I was going to be inspired as much by my fellow teacher-participants as by the program speakers.

The theme of the 12th annual EGU GIFT workshop was “Our Changing Planet” with an emphasis on climate, and on the first official morning of the conference we got right to business with an engaging talk by Thomas Stocker, IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Working Group 1 Co-Chair, from the University of Bern, Switzerland. Dr. Stocker highlighted the process of the IPCC working groups, the wealth of data supporting anthropogenic climate change, and the serious risks that we face if we do not act to curtail greenhouse gas emissions. This compelling presentation was followed by a talk from Valerie Masson-Delmotte about climate information that can be obtained from ice cores, and hands-on activities from Sally Soria-Dengg and Francesca Ugolini.

I found the experiments on ocean acidification and the role of the ocean in the carbon cycle, demonstrated by Dr. Soria-Dengg, to be very engaging and enlightening, and I cannot wait to use those in my Earth science classes this year as we study the connections between climate and oceans. I especially enjoyed the demonstration of ocean acidification using a glass bowl filled with distilled water and an indicator solution. Lighted floating candles are placed on the water’s surface and then covered with a second glass bowl to make a chamber. As the burning candles release carbon dioxide, the surface water in contact with the air turns yellow, which indicates acidification. This visual demonstration will clearly illustrate for my students how ocean water can become acidic as it absorbs increasing amounts of CO2 from our atmosphere.

Day 2 of the GIFT workshop dawned bright, and all of the teachers were ready to learn more about the evidence for human impact on our climate system. One of the challenges for teachers concerning this topic, especially in the United States where it is fraught with political tension and argument, is presenting the scientific data in a way that is clear, concise, and allows students to connect the dots without forcing conclusions on them. Frequently during the workshop the mood in the room would turn quiet and somber as all of the teachers grasped the sheer amount of scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change. We learned of evidence from ice cores, ocean chemistry and expansion, sea ice melt, agricultural change, and satellite observations. By the afternoon of the second day, we were ready to lighten the mood with a game called The Carbon Caper. I can definitely see my middle school students getting involved in a game that simulates carbon movement between various sources and sinks by throwing plastic balls into mesh bins. The best kind of learning for many of us is the kind in which we feel like we are playing instead of learning.

Tuesday’s program was shortened to allow us to get ready for the evening’s poster session. Since the GIFT workshop was part of the EGU General Assembly, there were literally thousands of posters being presented during the conference. It was quite overwhelming to even find the section where I was supposed to hang my own poster, which was on water quality research conducted by my students on our local watershed. Thankfully, Dr. Eve Arnold, also a member of the EGU Education Committee, had prepared us well for the event, and we followed a schedule that allowed us to spend some time at our own poster answering questions, and equal time interacting with other teachers and their posters. I was able to get many good ideas for my classroom from other GIFT participants.

On the final day of the workshop, we heard from Dr. Larry Mayer, Director of the School of Marine Science and Ocean Engineering, Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire, as he discussed his experiences with recent changes in Arctic ice cover. Dr. Mayer entertained us with tales from his voyages mapping sea ice in the Arctic, as well as cautioned us about the implications of diminishing sea ice on both our climate system and our geopolitical system. According to Dr. Mayer, the five coastal nations that border the Arctic—Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the United States—have all engaged in extensive seafloor mapping in the last decade in order to establish their sovereign rights over the resources of the seafloor under the Law of the Sea Treaty. This presentation was very interesting and provided us with great resources to make interdisciplinary connections between science and social studies.

An additional highlight on the final day of the conference was the opportunity for the U.S. teachers to visit a school in Vienna. Claudia Pollach and her administrators at AHS Heustadelgasse were very gracious to open the doors of their school to us. We enjoyed learning more about the education system of Vienna, and the environmentally sustainable design of Ms. Pollach’s school.

I am incredibly grateful that I was able to attend the EGU GIFT workshop last spring with the assistance of the William Goree Award. This opportunity was definitely responsible for expanding my scientific background, which is the purpose of the award. Since returning from Vienna, I have included details of my experience in a presentation at the Michigan Science Teachers Association conference, as well as worked with several extracurricular student groups on climate-related projects. In the next month, I will be teaching units on climate and oceans, and I am excited about incorporating the hands-on lessons that I learned from the GIFT workshop. I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Carlo Laj (Chairman of the EGU Committee on Education and founder and President of EDUGEA), Lauren Keaton (William Goree’s daughter), and William Goodman (2G Enterprises) for selecting me for this award and for fostering such high-quality teacher professional development.

By Susan Tate, 8th Grade Earth Science Teacher, Whitehall Middle School, Michigan

GeoEd: Working together

When a geoscientist steps into a classroom, set to share their wonders of the Earth with a host of eager young minds, they are heading straight into unknown waters. Which students will rock the boat? What works well for this class and what should you steer well clear of? Not knowing the answers can turn a terrific outreach activity into a sinking ship. Fortunately, there’s a navigator on board. Sam Illingworth shows the importance of working together with teachers to avoid rough waters and make your outreach activity a success…

Albert Einstein once said, “A foolish faith in authority is the greatest enemy of truth.” Einstein was talking about a reluctance to accept the authority of another person’s, scientific or religious dogma, without first rationally testing that person’s claims, but he might just as well have been talking about scientists who participate in outreach activities without attempting to involve a teacher.

Scientists are good at science, that after all is what we are paid to do, and for the scientists that engage with school children and the general public many of them are also good communicators. Some of the scientists might even have teaching experience, but in the vast majority of cases they are not teachers, and to assume that they do not need the help and assistance of the classroom educators is ignorance bordering on arrogance.

As I have written about in previous posts, good outreach activities will build on what the students already know, rather than taking a deficit-model approach to teaching. Building on what the students know involves not only a detailed knowledge of the curriculum, but also an in-depth understanding of the needs and abilities of each of the students in the classroom. This is a lengthy process (here is an excellent blog post about ditching the deficit model from a teacher’s perspective) that cannot be fast-tracked, nor is there a need to do so when the teachers already have all of that information at their fingertips.

Even those scientists that participate in outreach activities, and who have experience of teaching at a pre-university level need to ensure that they actively engage with the teachers in the learning process. After all, whilst they may have experience of teaching in a classroom environment, they will not have experience of teaching in this classroom environment, and will be unfamiliar with the different learning styles and social nuances of the student cohort.

Every classroom is different. (Credit: isafmedia)

Every classroom is different. (Credit: isafmedia)

In developing an outreach activity for school children, I would suggest involving a teacher in the design process as early as possible. Their knowledge of the curriculum and of general learning behaviours within the school environment will ensure that the message you are trying to convey through your outreach activity does not fall on deaf ears. They will also be able to provide constructive feedback as to what they know will and will not work in their own teaching environments.

Once the outreach activity is beyond the design stage and is ready to be unleashed upon its intended audience, I would suggest beta testing it with a teacher (and their class) with whom you are well acquainted. Providing that the teacher knows that this is the initial airing of the activity, they will be able to offer you incredibly useful feedback to improve upon the event for future iterations. Such feedback is also incredibly useful in forming some of the structural basis of the evaluation of your project, which can (and should) be used if writing up the process for peer-review.

Working with teachers during the development phase of an outreach activity is excellent practice. (Credit: Robert Hruzek)

Working with teachers during the development phase of an outreach activity is excellent practice. (Credit: Robert Hruzek)

Once the initial beta testing has been completed, it is good practice to carry out a similar exercise with the teacher of every class that the activity is delivered to. It is wrong to assume that what works for one group of students will work for another, and by sending in a basic précis of the planned outreach to the teacher that you will be working with beforehand, they will be able to give incredibly useful feedback as to what they perceive will and will not work well with their students. This step can be the difference between engaging with the classroom in an effective and genuinely two-way dialogue and talking at a group of disinterested pupils whose minds have long since left the learning environment.

Working with the teacher at the time of delivery is also essential for a successful outreach event. The teacher will be able to assist with basic logistics such as room setup, and will also be able to ensure that the class is grouped (where necessary) to avoid wanton disruption.

Teachers are well placed to split up potential troublemakers, to avoid scenes like this one. (Credit: Carlos Villela)

Teachers are well placed to split up potential troublemakers, to avoid scenes like this one. (Credit: Carlos Villela)

It is sometimes easy to forget that outreach work should also be a learning experience for the scientists that are involved. The knowledge exchange that can be gained from observing the teaching and classroom management style of a good educator are skills that are directly transferable into key facets of research life; from communicating to a variably engaged audience to working with difficult co-workers. As the great American writer J.P. McEvoy put it, “When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new.”

By Sam Illingworth, Lecturer, Manchester Metropolitan University