GeoLog

Ocean Sciences

Imaggeo on Mondays: The calm before the storm

Imaggeo on Mondays: The calm before the storm

The picture was taken during the 2015 research cruise HE441 in the southern German Bight, North Sea. It features the research vessel Heincke, on a remarkably calm and warm spring day, forming a seemingly steady wake.

The roughly 55 metre long FS Heincke, owned by the German federal government and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, provides a great platform for local studies of the North Sea shelf. Eleven scientists and students from the University of Bremen, MARUM Research Faculty, University of Kiel, and Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute, along with the ship’s crew formed a great team under the supervision of chief scientist Christian Winter.

On deck, different autonomous underwater observatories were waiting to be deployed. Their purpose was to measure the seabed- and hydrodynamics in a targeted area of the German Bight. The investigation of the interaction between geomorphology, sedimentology and biogeochemistry is crucial to understand the processes acting on this unique and dynamic environment. In the German Bight various stakeholders with diverse interests come together. Profound knowledge, backed by cutting edge research, helps to resolve future conflicts between use and protection of the environment.

While this photo features a tranquil day at sea, some days later the weather and wave conditions got so bad that the cruise had to be abandoned. Storm Niklas, causing wave heights of more than three metres, made deployment and recovery of the observatories too dangerous for the crew, scientists, and delicate instruments.

Despite the severe weather, the research cruise was still able to gather important data with the time made available. Schedules on research vessels are tight and optimized to fit as much high-quality measurements as possible into time slots that are depending on convenient sea (tide) and weather conditions. State-of-the-art research equipment were prepared, deployed, recovered and assessed several times during the then only 8-day long cruise. Measurements were supported by ship based seabed mapping and water column profiling. Transit times, like the one depicted, were used to prepare the different sensors and instruments for the upcoming deployment.

The rare occasion of good weather combined with idle time was utilized to take this long exposure photo. A calm sea, a stable clamp temporarily attached to a handrail, and a neutral density filter were additionally required to increase the exposure time of the camera to 13 seconds, in order to capture this picture. The long exposure time smooths all movement relative to the ship, enhancing the effect of the wake behind the Heincke vessel.

Over the course of several years, regular Heincke research cruises and the collaboration between the different institutions has led to the successful completion of research projects, with findings being published in various journals, listed below.

By Markus Benninghoff, MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany

Further reading

Ahmerkamp, S, Winter, C, Janssen, F, Kuypers, MMM and Holtappels, M (2015) The impact of bedform migration on benthic oxygen fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120(11). 2229-2242. doi:10.1002/2015JG003106

Ahmerkamp, S, Winter, C, Krämer, K, de Beer, D, Janssen, F, Friedrich, J, Kuypers, MMM and Holtappels, M (2017) Regulation of benthic oxygen fluxes in permeable sediments of the coastal ocean. Limnology and Oceanography. doi:10.1002/lno.10544

Amirshahi, SM, Kwoll, E and Winter, C (2018) Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events. Continental Shelf Research, 152. 76-86. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2017.11.005

Krämer, K and Winter, C (2016) Predicted ripple dimensions in relation to the precision of in situ measurements in the southern North Sea. Ocean Science, 12(6). 1221-1235. doi:10.5194/os-12-1221-2016

Krämer, K, Holler, P, Herbst, G, Bratek, A, Ahmerkamp, S, Neumann, A, Bartholomä, A, van Beusekom, JEE, Holtappels, M and Winter, C (2017) Abrupt emergence of a large pockmark field in the German Bight, southeastern North Sea. Scientific Reports, 7(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05536-1

Oehler, T, Martinez, R, Schückel, U, Winter, C, Kröncke, I and Schlüter, M (2015) Seasonal and spatial variations of benthic oxygen and nitrogen fluxes in the Helgoland Mud Area (southern North Sea). Continental Shelf Research, 106. 118-129. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2015.06.009

If you pre-register for the 2019 General Assembly (Vienna, 07–12 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 15 January until 15 February, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Crowned elephant seals do citizen science

Imaggeo on Mondays: Crowned elephant seals do citizen science

In the Southern Ocean and North Pacific lives a peculiar type of elephant seal. This group acts like any other marine mammal; they dive deep into the ocean, chow down on fish, and sunbathe on the beach. However, they do all this with scientific instruments attached to their heads. While the seals carry out their usual activities, the devices collect important oceanographic data that help scientists better understand our marine environment.

The practice of tagging elephant seals to obtain data started in 2004, and today equipped seals are the largest contributors of temperature and salinity profiles below of the 60th parallel south. You can find all sorts of data that has been collected by instrumented sea creatures through the Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole database online.

The female elephant seal, pictured here at Point Suzanne on the eastern end of the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean, is a member of this unusual headgear-wearing cohort. This particular seal had been roaming the sea for several months with the device (also known as a miniature Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensor) on her head. As the seal dove hundreds of metres below the sea surface, the instrument captured the vertical profile of the area, recording the ocean’s temperature and salinity, as well as chlorophyll a fluorescence and concentrations. When the seal resurfaced, the sensor sent the data it had accrued to scientists by satellite.

Etienne Pauthenet, a PhD student at Stockholm University who was involved in a seal tagging campaign, had a chance to snap this photo before tranquilising the seal and retrieving the tag.

Using elephant seals and other marine mammals to collect data gives scientists the opportunity to analyse remote regions of the ocean that aren’t very accessible by vehicles. Studying these parts of the world are important for gaining insight on how oceans and their inhabitants are responding to climate change, for example. With the help of data-gathering elephant seals, researchers are able to amass in situ measurements from regions that previously had been hard to reach, apply this data to oceanographic models, and make predictions on ocean climate processes.

While gathering data via elephant seals are crucial to oceanographic research, Pauthenet explains that the practice is sometimes quite difficult. “It can be complicated to find back the seal, because of the Argo satellite signal precision. The quality of the signal depends on the position of the seal, if she is lying on her back for example, or if she is still in the water.”

While on the research campaign, Pauthenet and his colleagues were stationed at a small cabin on the shore of Point Suzanne and they walked the shore every day in search of the seal, relying on location points transmitted from a VHF radio. After seven days they finally located her and removed her valuable crown. The seal was then free to go about her business, having given her contribution to the hundreds of thousands of vertical profiles collected by marine mammal citizen scientists.

by Olivia Trani, EGU Communications Officer
Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: The best of imaggeo in 2018

Imaggeo on Mondays: The best of imaggeo in 2018

Imaggeo, our open access image repository, is packed with beautiful images showcasing the best of the Earth, space and planetary sciences. Throughout the year we use the photographs submitted to the repository to illustrate our social media and blog posts.

For the past few years we’ve celebrated the end of the year by rounding-up some of the best Imaggeo images. But it’s no easy task to pick which of the featured images are the best! Instead, we turned the job over to you!  We compiled a Facebook album which included all the images we’ve used  as header images across our social media channels and on Imaggeo on Mondays blog post in 2018 an asked you to vote for your favourites.

Today’s blog post rounds-up the best 12 images of Imaggeo in 2018, as chosen by you, our readers.

Of course, these are only a few of the very special images we highlighted in 2018, but take a look at our image repository, Imaggeo, for many other spectacular geo-themed pictures, including the winning images of the 2018 Photo Contest. The competition will be running again this year, so if you’ve got a flair for photography or have managed to capture a unique field work moment, consider uploading your images to Imaggeo and entering the 2019 Photo Competition.

A view of the southern edge of the Ladebakte mountain in the Sarek national park in north Sweden. At this place the rivers Rahpajaka and Sarvesjaka meet to form the biggest river of the Sarek national park, the Rahpaädno. The rivers are fed by glaciers and carry a lot of rock material which lead to a distinct sedimentation and a fascinating river delta for which the Sarek park laying west of the Kungsleden hiking trail is famous.

 

Melt ponds. Credit: Michael Tjernström (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The February 2018 header image used across our social media channels. The photos features ponds of melted snow on top of sea ice in summer. The photo was taken from the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the “Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study” in 2008 as part of the International Polar Year.

 

Karstification in Chabahar Beach, IRAN. Credit: Reza Derakhshani (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The June 2018 header image used for our social media channels. The photo was taken on the Northern coast of the Oman Sea, where the subduction of Oman’s oceanic plate under the continental plate of Iran is taking place.

 

River in a Charoite Schist. Credit: Bernardo Cesare (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

A polarized light photomicrograph of a thin section of a charoite-bearing schist. Charoite is a rare silicate found only at one location in Yakutia, Russia. For its beautiful and uncommon purple color it is used as a semi-precious stone in jewelry.

Under the microscope charoite-bearing rocks give an overall feeling of movement, with charoite forming fibrous mats that swirl and fold as a result of deformation during metamorphism. It may be difficult to conceive, but these microstructures tell us that solid rocks can flow!

 

Refuge in a cloudscape. Credit: Julien Seguinot (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The action of glaciers combined with the structure of the rock to form this little platform, probably once a small lake enclosed between a moraine at the mountain side and the ice in the valley.

Now it has become a green haven in the mountain landscape, a perfect place for an alp. In the Alps, stratus clouds opening up on autumn mornings often create gorgeous light display.

 

Antarctic Fur Seal and columnar basalt Credit: Etienne Pauthenet (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

This female fur seal is sitting on hexagonal columns of basalt rock, that can be found in Pointe Suzanne at the extreme East of the Kerguelen Islands, near Antarctica. This photo was the November 2018 header image for our social media channels.

 

Silent swamp predator. Credit: Nikita Churilin (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

A macro shot of a Drosera rotundifolia modified sundew leaf waiting for an insect at swamp Krugloe. This photo was the January 2018 header image and one of the finalists in the 2017 Imaggeo Photo Competition.

 

Once there was a road…the clay wall. Credit: Chiara Arrighi (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The badlands valley of Civita di Bagnoregio is a hidden natural gem in the province of Viterbo, Italy, just 100 kilometres from Rome. Pictured here is the ‘wall,’ one of the valley’s most peculiar features, where you can even find the wooden structural remains of a trail used for agricultural purposes in the 19th and 20th centuries.

 

New life on ancient rock. Credit: Gerrit de Rooij (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

“After two days of canooing in the rain on lake Juvuln in the westen part of the middle of Sweden, the weather finally improved in the evening, just before we reached the small, unnamed, uninhabited but blueberry-rich island on which this picture was taken. The wind was nearly gone, and the ragged clouds were the remainder of the heavier daytime cloud cover,” said Gerrit de Rooij, who took this photograph and provided some information about the picture, which features some of the oldest rocks in the world but is bursting with new life, in this blog post.

 

Cordillera de la Sal. Credit: Martin Mergili (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The photograph shows the Valle de la Luna, part of the amazing Cordillera de la Sal mountain range in northern Chile. Rising only 200 metres above the basin of the Salar de Atacama salt flat, the ridges of the Cordillera de la Sal represent a strongly folded sequence of clastic sediments and evapourites (salt can be seen in the left portion of the image), with interspersed volcanic material.

 

Robberg Peninsula – a home of seals. Credit: Elizaveta Kovaleva (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

“This picture is taken from the Robberg Peninsula, one of the most beautiful places, and definitely one of my favorite places in South Africa. The Peninsula forms the Robberg Nature Reserve and is situated close to the Plettenberg Bay on the picturesque Garden Route. “Rob” in Dutch means “seal”, so the name of the Peninsula is translated as “the seal mountain”. This name was given to the landmark by the early Dutch mariners, who observed large colonies of these noisy and restless animals on the rocky cliffs of the Peninsula,” said Elizaveta Kovaleva in this blog post.

 

The great jump of the Tequendama. Credit: Maria Cristina Arenas Bautista (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Tequendama fall is a natural waterfall of Colombia. This blog post highlights a Colombian myth about the origins of the waterfall, which is tied to a real climate event.

 

If you pre-register for the 2019 General Assembly (Vienna, 07 – 12 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 15 January up until 15 February, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

GeoPolicy: COP24 – key outcomes and what it’s like to attend

GeoPolicy: COP24 – key outcomes and what it’s like to attend

Earlier this month, the 24th Conference of the Parties (COP24), was held in Katowice, Poland.  COPs are held annually and provide world leaders, policy workers, scientists and industry leaders with the opportunity to negotiate and determine how best to tackle climate change and reduce emissions on a global level. With so much at stake, these negotiations can be tense.

Some COPs see more action than others. COP24 had relatively high stakes with delegates having to establish a rulebook that will allow the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement to be put into practice in 2020 [1]. The Paris Climate Agreement was established during COP21. It acknowledges climate change as an international threat and that preventing the Earth’s temperature from rising 2°C above pre-industrial levels should be a global priority. Creating a rulebook that will instruct countries on what they must do to achieve this is no easy feat.

This blog will give you some details about what was achieved at COP24, and perhaps more importantly, what wasn’t. But firstly, it will outline what it’s actually like to attend a COP with some personal insights from Sarah Connors, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Science Officer and former EGU Policy Fellow.

Initial impressions from COP24

What struck me (as a first timer) was all the different levels of meetings, you have the top-level negotiations, which lots of observers can join and even ask questions at some bits (rather than just the official delegates). Sometimes it would be students speaking – which was cool to see. Then there’s smaller negotiation levels going on that are closed”

Activities for COP participants outside of the negotiations and high-level sessions

The whole meeting is mostly in two halves. There’s the official negations bit and then there are official side events and pavilions that several countries or organisations have paid for where they will have their own smaller events. The IPCC pavilion was something I worked on.”

Then there’s load of other events going on around the city, hosted by NGOs and charities. There’s also the occasional protest. It all felt a bit disjointed at times actually – not sure that’s a good thing.

It’s a bit like EGU in the fact your need to study all the different schedules to see which events you’d like to see/attend.”

Interacting with the policymaking delegates

“In terms of the science-policy interface, the SBSTA events or official side events were opportunities for the IPCC lead scientists to present the findings from the IPCC special report. Delegates got to ask questions there to help understanding.”

A few delegates also came to the IPCC pavilion to ask more about the what the science was saying about the differences between a 1.5°C and 2°C increase in temperature.”

So… What did the COP24 achieve?

The rulebook, which was the key task of COP24 and which will be used as an operating manual after 2020 was, for the most part, agreed upon. This is a positive step because, as UN Secretary General António Guterres, states “A completed work programme will unleash the potential of the Paris Agreement. It will build trust and make clear that countries are serious about addressing climate change” [1].

From 2024, all countries will have to report their emissions (and progress in reducing them) every two years. However, instead of requiring countries to adhere to a single, scientifically sound method of reporting their emissions, the text permits countries to use “nationally appropriate methodologies”. This could result in countries under-reporting their emissions with the land use sector being particularly susceptible to creative accounting [1].

A number of countries pledged to increased their climate pledges in 2020, including: the EU, UK, Argentina, Mexico, India, Canada, Ukraine and Jamaica. Some large private sector companies also made ambitious pledges including Maersk, the world’s largest shipping company, which pledged to eliminate its carbon impact by 2050.

What wasn’t achieved?

  1. The IPCC’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5ºC wasn’t fully embraced: Although the vast majority of national representatives wanted to “welcome” the report which was commissioned as part of the Paris Agreement, the US, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait only wanted to “note” the report. This resulted in a watered-down statement which welcomed the “timely completion” of the report and “invited” countries to make use of it. Although this may seem like semantics, it demonstrated the differing levels of engagement in climate action that countries are willing to have and pressed the issue of whether new legislation is effectively using the scientific evidence commissioned by policymakers.
  2. Lack of clarity on climate finance: During the Paris Climate Agreement, donor nations committed to mobilising $100 billion annually from 2020 to fund climate action in developing countries. Not only is it uncertain whether donor countries will be able to reach this contribution target by 2020, but there is a lack of clarity as to what constitutes “climate finance”. Can countries report aspects of their development add as “climate action aid” or should this be separated? What are the impacts of this?
  3. No agreement on Article 6, voluntary carbon markets: The final decision on Article 6 which sets the rules for voluntary carbon markets (such as carbon credits) will be made during COP25 next year. Carbon credits are given to countries based on their emissions-cutting efforts and carbon sinks, subsequently helping countries to meet their emissions targets. During the COP, Brazil pushed for a change in the wording of the final document which would have allowed each party in the carbon credit trade to make a “corresponding adjustment” to their emissions inventories. There was concern that this clause may allow countries to “double count” the emissions traded and as a result a final decision was not agreed upon this year.

What comes next?

COP25 will now be held in Chile rather than Brazil after Brazil’s president-elect Jair Bolsonaro reneged on hosting the event. During this meeting the final elements of the Paris rulebook will be finalised and work will begin on emissions targets for 2030 and beyond.

Additional reading