GeoLog

Geomorphology

Imaggeo on Mondays: Cordillera de la Sal

Imaggeo on Mondays: Cordillera de la Sal

The photograph shows the Valle de la Luna, part of the amazing Cordillera de la Sal mountain range in northern Chile. Rising only 200 metres above the basin of the Salar de Atacama salt flat, the ridges of the Cordillera de la Sal represent a strongly folded sequence of clastic sediments and evapourites (salt can be seen in the left portion of the image), with interspersed volcanic material.

This formation evolved when the depression between the Cordillera Domeyko mountain range and the main Andean mountain ranges, filled by an ancient salt flat, was squeezed together over the last 10-15 million years, leaving behind the folded belt of hills seen today. Sand brought along from adjacent areas by the winds was caught between the ridges of the Cordillera de la Sal, accumulating to form the impressive dune shown in the foreground of the image.

Under normal conditions, the perfectly shaped Licancabur Volcano, forming the border between Chile and Argentina, would appear in the background of this sunset scene. However, the image was taken during the Invierno Boliviano (Bolivian winter), when humid air from the eastern side of the Andes travels west across the Andean Plateau, Altiplano. The air masses journey all the way to the otherwise extremely arid Atacama Desert, bringing clouds, rain and occasionally even hail.

I have been to this area three times: first for vacation, then two times for excursions with students, most recently in February this year. Interestingly, the weather was as to be expected for the Atacama Desert only one time. For the two other times, the weather was looking like this photograph, so it is hard for me to believe that the Atacama would be as arid as people always say. However, indeed, the pieces of geological and geomorphological evidence, such as the folded layers of the Cordillera de la Sal, clearly indicate its extreme aridity, prevailing for tens of millions of years!

By Martin Mergili, University of Vienna

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Geopolicy: Combating plastic pollution – research, engagement and the EU Plastic Strategy

Geopolicy: Combating plastic pollution – research, engagement and the EU Plastic Strategy

Awareness around the prevalence of plastic pollution, particularly in our oceans, has been growing over the last few years. This is not surprising considering that plastic production has surged from 15 million tonnes in 1964 to 311 million tonnes in 2014 and models have shown that this number will double again within the next 20 years in a business as usual scenario. Furthermore, research conducted by the European Commission estimated that Europeans generate a combined 25 million tonnes of plastic waste annually with less than 30% being collected for recycling.

All this sounds quite overwhelming but the real problem is, while we can estimate the production of plastic with some certainty, it is extremely difficult to know exactly how pervasive plastic pollution is on a global scale and how it is impacting human health and our environment. There are a huge number of researchers from a variety of scientific disciplines currently working on these issues. Some prominent research areas related to plastic pollution include:

  • Microplastics – a plastic pollutant that we still understand relatively little about. Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) that originate from larger plastic waste erosion and through the abrasion of synthetic fibres commonly used in clothing. A 2017 study on microplastics found that 80% of the drinking water samples collected on five different continents tested positive for the presence of plastic fibre. The exact environmental and health implications of microfibres still isn’t clear.
  • Location and movement – Understanding the location and transport pathways of plastic pollution can help us estimate how much there is, where it is and how it might be impacting the ecosystem. Unfortunately, the location of most plastic pollution is still unknown. Recent research suggests that there are roughly 300 billion pieces of floating plastic in the polar ocean while other research shows a significant amount of plastic is entering the food web.

A bottle dropped in the water off the coast of China is likely to be carried eastward by the north Pacific gyre and end up a few hundred miles off the coast of the US. Photograph: Graphic. Credit: If you drop plastic in the ocean, where does it end up? The Guardian. Original Source: Plastic Adrift by oceanographer Erik van Sebille. Click to run.

  • Lithosphere – Although the location of some plastics is unknown, others are now being found where we would least expect them… as part of the lithosphere! A new type of stone (plastiglomerate) has recently been discovered in Hawaii. This stone, which the research team believes is a result of burning plastic debris in an open environment, was found to be primarily composed of melted plastic, beach sediment, basaltic lava fragments and organic debris.

The methods used to communicate plastic pollution research, and its potential impact on the environment and human health, have been extremely effective in both mobilising citizens to reduce their own plastic use and is showing policymakers that the public wants a large-scale transformation.

As a result, plastic pollution is now being tackled by the EU Plastics Strategy, a political action that was largely driven by research and the subsequent public advocacy.

What is the EU Plastics Strategy?

The EU Plastics Strategy was adopted on 16 January 2018 after research into the extent and impacts of plastic pollution was conducted by a research team commissioned by the European Commission. The strategy aims to change the way plastic products are designed, used and produced within the EU. The strategy also outlines the European Commission’s primary goal of a 55% plastic recycling rate, with all plastic packaging in Europe recyclable or reusable, by 2030.

To achieve this, a €350m budget for research into innovative plastic design, production and collection has been reserved with the additional possibility of a tax on unsustainable plastic production.

Furthermore, the strategy is proposing better recycling programmes across all EU countries, clearer labelling on packaging so consumers fully understand its recyclability, easier access to tap water in public areas to reduce the demand for bottled water, and a ban on microplastics in cosmetics and personal care products.

With these aims, the European Commission hopes that the EU Plastic Strategy will reduce plastic pollution while also help the EU transition into a circular economy and reach their goals on sustainable development, global climate and industrial policy.

There’s still a long way to go

The release of the Plastics Strategy is just the beginning of the EU’s fight against plastic pollution – it’s the blueprint for legislation that will be implemented over the next couple of years. You can view the European Commission’s timeline of actions, directives and policies related to the strategy here.

Although the Plastics Strategy is only the first step towards implementing legislation, it is a strong signal to investors and the private sector that there is a lucrative market in plastic alternatives and recycling technology. This means that there is likely to be more money pumped into finding solutions on top of the €350m reserved for plastic research and innovation by the EU.

What’s the positive take home message?

Despite plastic pollution being a challenging and frightening problem, it is also a fantastic example of how researchers, civil society, policymakers and the private sector play different but complimentary roles in creating large-scale change. With the initial crisis highlighted by researchers, mobilised by civil society, acted upon by policymakers and invested in by the private sector, the threat of plastic pollution can also be seen as the beginning of a success story – we just have to follow it through!

Further information

Imaggeo on Mondays: The best of imaggeo in 2017

Imaggeo on Mondays: The best of imaggeo in 2017

Imaggeo, our open access image repository, is packed with beautiful images showcasing the best of the Earth, space and planetary sciences. Throughout the year we use the photographs submitted to the repository to illustrate our social media and blog posts.

For the past few years we’ve celebrated the end of the year by rounding-up some of the best Imaggeo images. But it’s no easy task to pick which of the featured images are the best! Instead, we turned the job over to you!  We compiled a Facebook album which included all the images we’ve used  as header images across our social media channels and on Imaggeo on Mondays blog post in 2017 an asked you to vote for your favourites.

Today’s blog post rounds-up the best 12 images of Imaggeo in 2017, as chosen by you, our readers.

Of course, these are only a few of the very special images we highlighted in 2017, but take a look at our image repository, Imaggeo, for many other spectacular geo-themed pictures, including the winning images of the 2017 Photo Contest. The competition will be running again this year, so if you’ve got a flare for photography or have managed to capture a unique field work moment, consider uploading your images to Imaggeo and entering the 2018 Photo Contest.

Alpine massifs above low level haze . Credit: Hans Volkert (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

The forward scattering of sunlight, which is caused by a large number of aerosol particles (moist haze) in Alpine valleys, gives the mountain massifs a rather plastic appearance. The hazy area in the foreground lies above the Koenigsee lake; behind it the Watzmann, Hochkalter, Loferer Steinberge and Wilder Kaiser massifs loom up behind one other to the right of the centre line. Behind them is the wide Inn valley, which extends right across the picture.

A lava layer cake flowing . Credit: Timothée Duguet (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Check out a post from back in May to discover how layers of alternating black lavas and red soils built up to form a giant ‘mille feuilles’ cake at Hengifoss, Iceland’s third-highest waterfall.

Sediment makes the colour . Credit: Eva P.S. Eibl (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Earth is spectacularly beautiful, especially when seen from a bird’s eye view. This image, of a sweeping pattern made by a river in Iceland is testimony to it. Follow the link to learn more about river Leirá which drains sediment-loaded glacial water from the Myrdalsjökull glacier in Iceland.

Movement of ancient sand . Credit: Elizaveta Kovaleva (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

Snippets of our planet’s ancient past are frozen in rocks around the world. By studying the information locked in formations across the globe, geoscientist unpick the history of Earth. The layers in one of the winning images of the 2017 photo contest may seem abstract to the untrained eye, but Elizaveta Kovaleva (a researcher at the University of the Free State in South Africa) describes how they reveal the secrets of ancient winds and past deserts in a blog post we published in November.

View of the Tuva River and central mountain range
. Credit: Lisa-Marie Shillito (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

Initially, this photo may seem like any other tropical paradise: lush forests line a meandering river, but there is much more to the forests in the foreground than first meets the eye.

On the way back from Antarctica. Credit: Baptiste Gombert (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

Our December 2017 header image – On the way back from Antarctica, by Baptiste Gombert – celebrated #AntarcticaDay.

Angular unconformity. Credit: André Cortesão (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

It is not unusual to observe abrupt contacts between two, seemingly, contiguous rock layers, such as the one seen above. This type of contact is called an unconformity and marks two very distinct times periods, where the rocks formed under very different conditions.

Find a new way . Credit: Stefan Winkler (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Stephan Winkler’s 2017 Imaggeo Photo Contest finalist photo showcases an unusual weather phenomenon…find out more about this process in the post from last year.

On the way back from Antarctica. Credit: Alicia Correa Barahona (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

August’s social media header image showcases how, in the altiplano of Bolivia, Andean ecosystems, life and the hydrological cycle come together.

Icelandic valley created during a volcanic eruption. Credit: Manuel Queisser (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

The image shows a valley in the highland of Iceland carved out during a volcanic eruption with lava coming from the area visible in the upper right corner. The landscape is playing with the viewers sense of relation as there is no reference. The valley is approximately 1 km wide. The lower cascade of the water fall is ca. 30 m high. A person (ca. 3 pixels wide) is located near the base of the water fall about 50 m away. It was our October header image.

Despite being one of the driest regions on Earth, the Atacama desert is no stranger to catastrophic flood events. This post highlights how the sands, clays and muds left behind once the flood waters recede can hold the key to understanding this natural hazard.

The heart of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Credit: Jennifer Ziesch (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

“I saw one of the most beautiful place on earth: The glacially-fed Moraine Lake in the Banff National Park, Canada. The lake is situated in the Valley of the Ten Peaks. The beautiful blue colour is due to the mix of glacier water and rock flour,” says Jennifer, who took the photograph of this tranquil setting.

Symbiosis of fire, ice and water . Credit: Michael Grund (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

This mesmerising photograph is another of the fabulous finalists (and winner) of the 2017 imaggeo photo contest. The picture, which you can learn more about in this blog post, was taken at Storforsen, an impressive rapid in the Pite River in northern Sweden, located close to the site of a temporary seismological recording station which is part of the international ScanArray project. The project focuses on mapping the crustal and mantle structure below Scandinavia using a dense temporary deployment of broadband seismometers.

f you pre-register for the 2018 General Assembly (Vienna, 08 – 13 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 15 January up until 15 February, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: New life on ancient rock

Imaggeo on Mondays: New life on ancient rock

For the start of a new year, we bring you a photograph featuring some of the oldest rocks in the world but bursting with new life. The image, taken by Gerrit de Rooij, of the Helmholtz Centre for Env. Res. – UFZ, comes complete with an informative caption which we’ve included below. May the new year be successful for all our readers.

After two days of canooing in the rain on lake Juvuln in the westen part of the middle of Sweden, the weather finally improved in the evening, just before we reached the small, unnamed, uninhabited but blueberry-rich island on which this picture was taken. The wind was nearly gone, and the ragged clouds were the remainder of the heavier daytime cloud cover.

The setting sun lit them up beautifully, providing a dramatic background the the lonely tree managing to survive on the outskirt of the island.

The rocks in the this part of the world are billions of years old, among the oldest (though not THE oldest) on the planet, and heavily eroded. Slopes are generally gentle and there are no high peaks. The shapes of the mountains in the background, and the lake itself, are the result of the erosive force of multiple glaciations.

Sweden is normally relatively dry, because it is in the rain shadow of the Norwegian mountains, just not when we were there. The rivers in the region reflect the morphology of the landscape: they all have their sources close to the Norwegian border and flow (often through a succession of lakes) to the the southwest, discharging into the Gulf of Bothnia.

The lake’s level is manipulated to range between 387 and 396 meters above sea level for electricity generation. I am not entirely certain the tree is safe when the lake level peaks.

By Gerrit de Rooij, Helmholtz Centre for Env. Res. – UFZ

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.