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Solar-Terrestrial Sciences

Life of a Scientist

Jaime de la Cruz Rodriguez – ERC success in the field of solar physics

Jaime de la Cruz Rodriguez – ERC success in the field of solar physics

Coronal Heating Problem is one of the Sun’s unsolved mysteries where the corona is heated to over a million degrees and scientists have not figured out where the energy is coming from. Dr Jaime de la Cruz Rodriguez is tackling this 70 year old puzzle by first understanding the layer of the Sun below the corona – the chromosphere. He is awarded the prestigious starting grant by the European Research Council for his project SUNMAG: Understanding magnetic-field regulated heating and explosive events in the solar chromosphere.

 

Congratulations on your ERC fellowship! Tell us about the man behind the grant?

Thanks! I am a solar physicist from Spain now established at Stockholm University. I moved to Sweden from the Canary Islands in 2006 as a PhD student, that was quite a life change! I chose solar physics as a PhD topic because our proximity to the Sun allows us to apply very advanced techniques that are usually not possible with more distant astrophysical objects. I got the chance to move to Sweden in a moment when they had the largest solar telescope in the world, and it was a very attractive option. At a more personal level, I wanted to leave from Tenerife for some time, and Sweden looked like an exotic adventure at the time. But it turned out to be a new life for me: there I met my wife and we have two kids. After my PhD studies I had postdoc positions at University of Oslo and Uppsala University, where I worked with brilliant colleagues. Since 2014 I have worked in Stockholm University and nowadays I supervise 3 PhD students and 4 postdocs (including those from the ERC project).

Who/what do you give biggest credit for your success with the ERC grant and why?

ERC grants are awarded to scientists that have a very good idea to attempt making progress in a research field. Finding that idea and motivating why it is unique is not always an easy task. In summer 2016 our Institute installed a new instrument (CHROMIS) at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, which allows observing the upper layers of the solar chromosphere with unprecedented spatial resolution (~75 km on the surface of the Sun). Back then, I realized how much potential these new data had. I wrote the proposal around this new instrument and the development of new analysis tools that will allow us to carry out very exciting science in the chromosphere.

Can you briefly describe the SUNMAG project for which you are awarded the prestigious ERC grant in 2017?

The heating of the solar chromosphere remains one of the foremost question in solar and stellar physics: how is energy transported and deposited in this thin layer of the Sun located about the visible surface (the photosphere) and the million-degree corona?
The main obstacle to study this elusive layer of the Sun is that it requires very complex physics to model the observed intensities (spectral lines): it is very challenging to convert the intensities to the underlying physical state of the plasma.

The SUNMAG project will study how the chromosphere is heated in regions with strong concentrations of magnetic field. To do so I have developed a technique that allows to reconstruct a 3D model from our observations. These models contain the stratification of gas temperature, density, velocities and the magnetic field vector with height. I will use these models to study and characterize how the chromosphere is heated in active regions and explosive events like flares. In this region, the magnetic field is expected to play a fundamental role in the structuring and energy transport of the chromosphere.

The reason why this project is finally possible is twofold:
• A new analysis tool that allows reconstructing models from spectroscopic observations (described above) of the chromosphere. While these techniques already existed, for the first time our code allows for the inclusion of spectral lines that are sensitive to the middle and upper chromosphere.
• New instrumentation that allows to spatially resolve the scales at which energy is expected to be released in the solar chromosphere. The CHROMIS instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope basically doubles the spatial resolution of previous instrumentation, while also providing rich spectral information.
I believe that with this project I can help to take steps towards solving the chromospheric heating problem.
Just to provide some context, the image illustrates a co-temporal observation of the solar photosphere and chromosphere (top panels), acquired at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. The photosphere (left panel) is dominated by convective cells (granules) and strong concentrations of magnetic field (sunspots). In the chromosphere this convective panel is lost and we start to observe elongated structures that are usually aligned with the magnetic field. We know that in magnetically active regions the magnetic field intensity (generally) decreases as we move upwards. We also know that the magnetic field is highly confined in the photosphere whereas it expands forming magnetic canopies in the chromosphere. These differences are illustrated in the lower panels of the image, where the left panel shows many sharp red structures in comparison with the right panel. In the right panel however, we can discern a green halo in the central part of the image that traces the presence of these magnetic canopies. In the image the red color indicates regions where the magnetic field is aligned with the line of sight of the observer (vertical fields), whereas the green color indicates regions where the magnetic field is contained in the plane of the surface (horizontal fields).

What aspects of the project are you most excited about and what aspects are least exciting?

I am most excited about flare studies. It is a real challenge to understand the observations, but I think we can help a lot as our techniques have not been applied in many studies to this kind of data. This part also has an interdisciplinary component. For example, our code provides estimates of the magnetic field in the chromosphere and that information could be used in other fields like space weather. I am less excited about some programing parts of the project that I will need to undertake. That part is usually less regarding and very time consuming.

In 2017 Stockholm University has bagged 7 ERC grants, including yourself. What does the University do to achieve such success?

Stockholm University is an excellent place to work and perhaps having successful applicants starts by having competitive research groups where those young researchers can develop their ideas and settle with their own groups. Research is very competitive at the moment, but competition used in a constructive way can be a very powerful tool. More pragmatically, I got excellent support during the application process and for the interview in Brussels.

What was the most difficult part of the application process and how did you overcome it?

I personally found the interview part is particularly difficult. I never have had issues with managing my nerves, but that day I didn’t have a steady hand when I entered the room. The panel did a very good job digging out the weaknesses of the project. I managed to overcome this difficult part by not trying to fiercely defend every criticism that I got during the interview. There are always limitations and it is better to be aware of them and to have them somewhat under control.

Apart from your accomplished research, what other duties do you perform? Do you think any of these duties gave you an edge over other applicants during the ERC decision?

Teaching and supervision. The latter is an important asset, especially if the project involves PhD students. I suspect that having zero supervision experience can be problematic in that case.

What are your other interests? How have they been affected since your award?

Professionally I am working in my prime scientific interest, which is great! The award has affected other aspects of my life, including my employment at Stockholm University which is now permanent. Outside science, sports have always been an important part of my life, but that part remains unaffected.

Lots of tips from Jaime for aspiring ERC applicants. Wishing him the very best for this project.

Prof. Ilya Usoskin – A discussion with an inquiry mind

Prof. Ilya Usoskin – A discussion with an inquiry mind

In the May issue of the Life of a Scientist we have the pleasure to talk to Prof. Ilya Usoskin from the Univeristy of Oulu, Finland. Among numerous things, he is the head of the Oulu Cosmic Ray station and receipent of this year’s Julius Bartels EGU Medal; a decision that was based:  “on his contributions to the understanding of the heliosphere, long-term changes in the solar activity and solar-terrestrial relations”.

Prof. Usoskin, can you please introduce yourself ?

I am a Russian-born and -educated scientist living and working in a quiet and charming city of Oulu in Northern Finland. In my research I combine both experiment and theory.

Prof. Ilya Usoskin (Credit: Ilya Usoskin)

As an experimentalist, I am the head of a cosmic ray station and operate a ground-based neutron monitor of Oulu, which is recognized as one of the most stable long-running neutron monitors in the world, a muon telescope, and, since 2015, the world’s most sensitive to low-energy cosmic rays neutron monitor on the Antarctic plateau, thanks to hospitality of the Franko-Italian Antarctic station Concordia. As a theoretician, I am focused on cosmic-ray induced effects in the Earth’s atmosphere, including the firstly developed full numerical model of cosmic-ray induced atmospheric ionization. Of course, as rooted in both experiment and theory, I work actively on data analysis and interpretation, with emphasis upon long-term solar and cosmic-ray variability.

You are a recognized expert in cosmic rays, solar-terrestrial relations, neutron monitors and space weather. What got you motivated, in the beginning of your carrier?

If you expect a nice story of a strongly motivated fellow who was developing according to a well elaborated plan, this is not my case. Earlier part of my career was more like a random walk. No focused motivation or conscious choices. Eventually I migrated to the field where there was a large gap, viz. sensitivity of a neutron monitor to solar energetic particles, and I explored this deeper. Then a new gap in the knowledge was found, and another one…

Do you have any analogies to help us understand what you do ?

There is a remote analogy. Imagine, you permanently reside in your homeland and grow crops. Of course, you want to know about the weather – can you thresh the grain today or better wait until tomorrow? You may know some weather lores, e.g., that the red sunset implies a windy day tomorrow, or from the shape and color of clouds you can predict that rain will start soon, and you start stacking the hay… That’s what Space weather does. We study Space climate. Keeping the same analogy, we try to understand the overall long-scale processes driving the everyday weather. We try to estimate the probability of a cold or warm winter to occur this year or a decade ahead. Of course, the exact weather for each particular day next summer cannot be predicted, but a probability of a cold and wet summer to occur can be evaluated.

At the General Assembly in 2018 you have been awarded the prestigious Julius Bartels Medal. Can you please briefly share with us your discoveries that have lead up to this point?

I am not very sure what were the discoveries which lead to the point. In fact, I haven’t made any discovery, but some results are interesting, at least for me. In particular, we were the first who applied a full Monte-Carlo simulation of the nucleonic-muon-electromagnetic cascade, initiated by cosmic ray in the Earth’s atmosphere, to assess the cosmic-ray related effects. Applying this method to cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be, we were able to perform the first quantitative physics-based reconstruction of solar activity on the multi-millennial timescale. We have shown that solar activity was unusually high during the second half of the 20th century, corresponding to a special case of a Grand maximum, but I would not call it a “discovery”. Generally, IMHO, a systematic study leading to a breakthrough in the long-term solar variability was appreciated rather than “discoveries”.

You are considered as a co-founder of Space Climate, can you please explain what that means in greater detail?

Space Climate implies long-term systematic changes in the near-Earth environment. It is more complex than just a temporal average of Space Weather, because in the latter you cannot see slow trend, tendencies. I would rather say that Space Weather is a snap-shot, instant projections of Space Climate. As a long term we mean everything longer than interannual variability (phases of the 11-year solar cycle) and up to millennia.

I would not agree to be regarded as a founder of the Space Climate discipline. The real father of it is Kalevi Mursula, with whom we discussed 15 years ago that the newly emerging concept of Space Weather is missing an important component, viz. long-term variability. To fill the gap, we organized the first International Symposium on Space Climate in Oulu in 2004, which has become the main Space Climate forum. In February 2019, we will conduct, in Canada, the seventh Symposium of the series, which collects ~150 scientists from all over World. We also regularly convene the related sections at COSPAR, EGU and AGU Assemblies.  As an oversimplified analogy, you can study details of summer weather, but then you will be totally surprised during the winter, if you are not aware of different seasons. Most of Space-era data were based during the period of the Modern grand maximum of solar activity, in the second half of 20th century. You can often hear that the Sun is abnormally quiet nowadays. But this is not correct – the Sun is now at its normal moderate level of activity, while it was abnormally active during the previous decades.

Does the future of your research field lie in interdisciplinary synergies and how important is the unrestricted access to data, today?

Exactly ! The future is in inter- and mutli-disciplinary research conducted by teams of experts. This implies the use of different types of data, and free access to level 1-3 data with full metadata is crucial for that. Data of level 0 can be, of course, kept for internal use, but shall be provided to anyone upon request. Unfortunately, the experience shows that errors may occur at any step even with best datasets, and reproducibility of the result is one of the basic principles of doing sciences.

Based on your experience, what scientific questions in your field could be solved in the near-future and why?

We are now approaching the stage when solar variability can be “absolutelyreconstructed from cosmogenic isotopes on the multi-millennial time scale, including individual solar cycles. Previously, only averaged evolution was possible to assess with somewhat “shaky” calibrations. Another very promising idea is to study extreme solar events. Just 6 years ago we could not imagine that a full analysis of strong solar events in the past, before 19th century, is possible. Now we know three such events, and there will be found more, I am sure.

Overall, we will have a quantitative (with higher quality that the sunspot number record on 400 years) record of solar activity over millennia.

What current idea you consider as the most potential ?

Personally, I am most interested now in the extreme solar events. We are close to defining the limit of our Sun in producing such events, and to assessing the probability of their occurrence, which is crucially important for both science, by providing new unique data on solar activity, and space technology and exploration. You would definitely want to know what “worst-case scenario” you may expect from the Sun and what is the probability of this scenario to be played by the Sun during, e.g., a manned mission to Mars. There is a focused research community attacking this problem from different points of view (precise measurements, realistic modelling, sophisticated data analysis), and we will meet in October this year for a dedicated workshop in Japan (supported by Nagoya University)

What would you like to convey to young researchers who want to work in your field?

My message is very simple: Do what you like in the best possible way ! Try to read state-of-the-art works by best scientists and to say “Hey, it’s good, but I can do it better !” – and then just try to do it better !

Dr. Helen Mason – Solar space missions: a life with the Sun

Dr. Helen Mason – Solar space missions: a life with the Sun

In the December issue of Life of a Scientist we have an interview of Dr. Helen Mason. She was working at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge, UK until recently when she retired. Her research interests include UV and X-Ray spectrum of the Sun. She has also devoted a lot of time in promoting science and working with schools from all over the world. Retirement for her means “more time for outreach and work with schools”. She has been awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) for her public service.

Dr. Helen Mason, OBE

What got you interested in solar physics?

I had an interest in astronomy from an early age. As a small child, I can remember looking up at the night sky with wonder. I studied physics and astronomy at university (Queen Mary College London), and did a topic on the solar wind for my dissertation. I found it fascinating. I was lucky enough to get a PhD place with Prof Mike Seaton at University College London, UCL, to study atomic physics and solar eclipse spectra.

What was your personal drive behind creating the CHIANTI atomic database which is widely used by the stellar and solar physics communities?
CHIANTI is an atomic database setup to calculate spectra from astrophysical plasmas

My expertise is in spectroscopy and atomic physics. I have calculated a lot of atomic data for the coronal visible, UV and X-ray lines. I realized that it was not easy for the solar community to access and use all these data. Ken Dere, from the USA, Brunella Monsignori-Fossi, from Italy, and I met for lunch at a solar physics conference in Italy, and we decided to make atomic data freely accessible online with a user-friendly interface. We decided to call this package CHIANTI, because we all love Italy. Sadly, Brunella died prematurely, but others have joined our team. CHIANTI was first launched over 20 years ago and is regularly updated and improved. We are very proud of our achievement, and very happy that it is used so widely.

As an expert in solar space instruments, having worked on pioneering projects from the Skylab solar observatory to Hinode, what is the one instrument that you would like to see in space in 10 years’ time?

It has indeed been an honour to work on so many wonderful and exciting solar missions, with so many fantastic teams from the UK, USA, Europe and Japan. We have learnt so much about the Sun and the solar atmosphere, but we are still lacking a few pieces of the jigsaw. Of course, I love spectroscopy and what I would really like to see is further developments of complex instruments which combine spectra with high cadence imaging of the solar atmosphere. We’ve had a few examples already, with the early HRTS rocket instrument, and more recently with the superb IRIS solar observations. I’d also like to look again (as we did with the Solar Maximum Mission) at the soft X-ray wavelength region. We could then really get to grips with linking the theory and observations.

A lot of women in science are forced to make compromises between career and family. Did you have to make such a choice? And is there something you would have done differently given another chance?

Combining a career in science with family commitments is never easy, for a male or a female. I have been fortunate that my husband and the people around me have been very supportive. When I was working on SMM at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre, my small children came with me. I was lucky that my sisters were keen to help out and have a free holiday. My solar colleagues have been hugely supportive, with words of encouragement when times looked bleak. I owe so much to the support from senior people (males and females) who believed in me and my abilities. I chose to work part-time for many years. This was a good decision, but not everyone recognizes that working part time does not indicate a lack of commitment, far from it. I have been invited to apply for Professorships at other UK universities, but this was not logistically possible with a family. I don’t regret my decision to stay in Cambridge. It is a wonderful place to live and work.

The OBE is indeed a great honor, in what way did this affect your –daily life –professional life?

The award of the OBE was indeed a great honour, but more so because someone had written a citation for me. You never know who or what they wrote, but the fact that someone did this, touched me deeply. It gave me more confidence in myself and the unconventional path I have trodden. Most of my peers (male and female) are now Professors. I probably could have been too, if I had made different decisions, but I have to say that very few of my peers have an OBE. It is awarded for ‘service’, and this means a lot to me. My OBE was awarded for services to higher education and women in STEM, which makes it very special. In addition, I was awarded it by the Queen at Windsor Castle, a place close to where I grew up.

You have worked extensively with young children and with graduate students. Which group do you prefer to work with? And do you notice a “generation gap” between these two sets of students?

I have indeed worked both with University students and school children. I have had several graduate students, have taught undergraduates. I am also a Life Fellow of St Edmunds College, and was a tutor, then Senior Tutor, so I have supported many students in different faculties, from all over the world. I still keep in touch with some, which is a great joy. 

I have worked with school children in the UK, South Africa and India. I lead the Sun|trek project (www.suntrek.org) which has been highly successful. Working with graduate students and with children is of course very different. I enjoy both. Yes, of course there is a generation gap. Children are now growing up in a very high-tech, consumer dominated world, where ‘celebrity’ is all about getting on a TV reality show. The pressures on children these days are immense, and many are suffering with bullying, depression, eating-disorders etc. This is a huge responsibility for our society.

As a woman of so many accolades, what was the one thing in your career that you consider a triumph but never got the acknowledgement you deserved?

Career-wise, I don’t seek accolades, but I do like the work I have done to be acknowledged. I have had a few significant press releases, and participated in media activities, radio and TV. I don’t think I have a ‘triumph’ which never got the acknowledgement which I thought it deserved.

It’s been a long fight for the cause of women in science, a fight that is far from over. Specially in some fields. What do you think about the drastically varying percentage of women in some fields Vs others. Are there lessons we should learn and use to improve things across the board?

Well, I think I could write a whole treatise on this topic. My view is that everyone has their own path to tread, all equally valid. The main issue is with perceptions, and this requires a cultural change. We do not all need to follow the same ‘standard’ career path. This is not an issue which just concerns women. I know men whose careers are suffering because of family commitments or other responsibilities. For couples in a relationship, a major issue is one of mobility, that is they need to find positions in the same location. This rarely happens, and one partner often has to compromise, possibly surviving for many years on ‘soft’ money. Males can find it equally hard to get funding and grants after a certain age, no matter how good they are. Technology should make it much easier to work remotely, which should make life easier, but doesn’t seem to yet. Part-time working or ‘time off’ still counts against you in job selection and promotion. Having a family is a commitment, which needs to be recognized. A work/life balance is important for males and females in our society. Attitudes need to change at the highest levels to provide more flexibility in our working patterns.

What is life after retirement?

I am still waiting to see what ‘life after retirement’ will be like. I hope to focus more on the things which I find fulfilling, my research and outreach work. I hope to start some new ventures and have more time for my family and friends. This is the theory, but I have not yet been able to put it in practice! I intend to do my solar research, and to be involved in future projects. I am also keen to link science and art. I lead an STFC funded project ‘SunSpaceArt’ which takes scientists and artists into schools. The children have produced some fantastic, creative and imaginative work. It is very rewarding to see how animated they get. I believe that STEAM, STEM with Art, is a good way forward for the future.

Helen doing what she loves. Right: with family, Middle: DAMYP Astro group at (Faculty of Maths) Open Day and Left: working with students in India

Miho Janvier – The Quest for Solar Storms

Miho Janvier – The Quest for Solar Storms

In this month’s (first ever for our blog) Life of a Scientist interview, we are very happy to talk to Dr Miho Janvier, a Researcher at the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay (France), whose work has shed some light on the understanding of solar eruptions and coronal mass ejections  (or solar storms) from their birth in the Sun’s corona to their evolution in interplanetary space. Additionally, Miho has actively taken part in Educational & Public Outreach efforts and has co-created an outreach project on Solar Storms using Virtual Reality technology.

 

Miho, can you please say a few words about yourself?


Miho Janvier (Credit: Miho Janvier)

I am currently working as an associate astronomer at the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay (France). My main research interests are the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of how solar flares occur, and how to better characterize the solar storms they send in space. My research work is quite varied, as I get to work with computer simulations as well as space mission data, and for the analytical part, it’s back to pen and paper! I am also involved in the next European Space Agency mission to the Sun called Solar Orbiter: with the team at my institute, we are responsible for the operations that will be carried by one instrument (SPICE) onboard the spacecraft. I also teach at the University and am involved in outreach projects.

What is a “typical” day in the life of a scientist? Describe one of your “usual” days.

It is difficult to describe a usual day because every day happens to be completely different from another! When I am not at a conference, I generally check and answer the most pressing emails in the morning, while my favorite tea is brewing. I would generally dedicate a few hours for research before heading to lunch with my colleagues. I love these moments of socializing, as the rest of the day can be spent alone in front of a computer! Depending on the days, I may have a meeting in the afternoon, either to discuss the preparation of operations on our instrument for the Solar Orbiter mission, or to discuss new outreach projects, or to dedicate some time for the lab communication team, in which I am involved. This is also the time I answer emails that need a longer thinking time.

What do you want to achieve with your research?

First of all, satisfy my inner curiosity about the universe! This is the one reason I wanted to become an astrophysicist in the first place. Funnily, the more research I do, the more questions I have. It is a never-ending process. On a more practical level, I want my research to matter for different reasons. First, to better understand what it means to live in the neighborhood of an active star that is the Sun. Secondly, not only will this help us to build the tools for space weather forecasting that are important for human societies, it will also help us understand how planets in the solar system react to the Sun’s activity. And ultimately, this research will help assess the conditions of life in other star systems too.

Why did you become a scientist and what drew you to this field?

As a child, I was always fascinated by the night sky. But it is not until I turned 9 and discovered the TV show X-files that I became a big fan of aliens. It may sound weird, but that was my first motivation for becoming an astrophysicist! Of course, the word “aliens” may sound like a joke, but in the bigger picture, what I mean is that questioning the existence of life in the universe is, to me, one of the most fascinating questions in life.
Later in my studies, I really liked the aspect of plasma physics, where the behavior of an ionized “fluid” is affected by an electromagnetic field (and I did like working with Maxwell’s equations). I finished my PhD in plasma physics as the space telescope Solar Dynamics Observatory was in its first mission years, sending us extremely detailed images of the Sun and its beautiful eruptions.  It just seemed natural to turn to solar physics!

 

What advice would you give to your younger self?

To be more confident about yourself, and for this, to build a support network along your career. A few years ago, I came across the expression “impostor syndrome” and realized that the pressure we have, as young scientists, can be daunting. As a woman in science, I also realized along the years that there are still a lot of stigmas and unconscious biases in science that can make you feel like you don’t belong to the field. Creating a network of colleagues, friends (and the two can intersect!) and self-care routines will help you go through the times when you have doubts.

What do you consider as the most surprising result in your research so far?

A few years ago, with the team I was working with at Paris Observatory, we analyzed the mechanisms happening during flares (what we call magnetic reconnection, in three dimensions). We expected a specific behavior of the Sun’s magnetic field in flaring regions from our numerical simulations. This was later confirmed with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory space telescope by one of our colleagues, who is indeed a keen observer!

What is it that you like to do when you aren’t working on research

Away from my desk, I love travelling. As a kid, I had the incredible chance to live in several countries on 3 different continents. So I get itchy feet when I am staying too long in the same place. I am just back from Tanzania, where I was lucky to walk with giraffes and bathe in turquoise waters: that definitely made me forget the Sun for a few days! Fortunately, as a scientist, I get to travel a lot for conferences and collaborations, so I get the best of both worlds. I love doing sport (from snowboarding to a more quiet yoga sessions), music (we have a secret band with some other astrophysicists friends, but I can’t tell you about it as it is secret!) and especially dancing.

 

Solar Storm logo (Credit: Miho Janvier)

Can you please explain the SolarStormVR project in more detail?

SolarStorm VR is a project I started when as I was living in Scotland. It started with me meeting a talented moviemaker and talking about doing a project together. I was interested in bringing storytelling as a way to communicate about the science we do, and we thought of using Virtual Reality to excite the young audience. We obtained some funding and spent countless nights working on the project. I keep a lot of good memories from it although it was quite strenuous! As I moved to Paris for my current position, I had to juggle my new science career with touring in science festivals to present our project, which meant a lot of sleepless nights. But the smiles on our visitors’ faces were totally worth it. The project is still alive throughout the website (www.solarstormvr.com) where anyone can either download the video or watch it on YouTube 360.

 

How important is science outreach to your career?

For me, it is very important for several reasons. First of all, I have a passion for what I do and I feel lucky to have a job that is more a passion than a work. In that respect, I want to share this passion because I find space awesome!  Many times however I hear that “science is too complicated” or “I was bad in physics/maths”: for some, science seems like an obscure, incomprehensible field that is secretly kept away from the public in an ivory tower. I want to change that. Giving the chance to anyone to understand how science is being done, to make them participate, is allowing anyone to have critical thinking, which is even more important nowadays with unlimited access to real or fake facts on the Internet. And finally, in astrophysics, the majority our funding is public money. It is our duty as researchers to give back to the society that allows us to do the job we do.

Do you have any words of advice for students that would like to follow the scientist’s path

For young students: science literacy you already have, it is a skill you build. It requires hard work but I believe anyone can become a scientist. Don’t give up if it is your dream.For older students starting a scientific career (PhD students), same advice as my younger self: build a support network; don’t hesitate to ask people to mentor you if you feel you need it. You are in for the long run, so better work with people you trust, who can help you through tough times, and who you will be sharing a drink (or many) at conferences! Some of my best friends are in the field, and they make the job even better!