Geology for Global Development

Mining and Minerals

The link between development and resource use

The link between development and resource use

This month the GfGD blog revolved around the theme of Resources. Blog author Heather Britton explores the link between the use of natural resources and development. How feasible are the various options available to us, to reach a use of resources aligned with sustainable development? From the ideology of a circular economy, a switch to renewable resources and increasing efficiency, what might help us get out of an unsustainable pattern? [Editor’s note: This post reflects Heather’s personal opinions. These opinions may not reflect official policy positions of Geology for Global Development.]

Resources play a huge part in determining the character, history and trading power of a country. Many of these resources – such as metal ores, precious stones and fossil fuels – link directly to the geology of a region, which has inspired the theme of ‘resources’ for this month’s selection of blog posts.

This week, I want to look at how in the past, and indeed to this day, the quantity and quality of resources available to a country has acted as a predictor of how developed that country is, and how this will need to change in the future if we are to succeed in meeting the UN sustainability goals.

The most striking example of development spurred on by the availability of resources is the industrial revolution. The UK is thought to have led the way in becoming an industrialised nation due to a combination of the amount of underlying carboniferous coal, and a strong agricultural economy.

Although Britain is thought to have experienced an industrial revolution of its own between the mid-18th century and 1830, the more widely recognized industrial revolution occurred between the mid-19th to the 20th century and was experienced by other countries, including France, Germany and North America to name a few.

Without the use of coal as a resource, development might have come to the UK much later.

It is predicted that by 2050, 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass will be used per year – three times the current average.

The environmental effects of burning coal and other fossil fuels were not fully appreciated at this time.

In the UK, as light has been shone on the negative impact of fossil fuel use, carbon emissions have been cut to a fraction of what they were during the industrial revolution. That being said, the UK is in the privileged position of having gone through industrial development prior to the threat of global warming being appreciated.

Many countries, particularly in parts of the world with low GDP, are only now beginning to use the natural resources available to them to undergo similar development to that which the UK experienced a century ago (this website gives an indication of world income by region over time).

This poses a problem for the climate, however, and brings us to the cusp of the problem – development needs to be decoupled from resource use, so that countries are able to reap the rewards of development in a sustainable way which does not exacerbate the negative impact that people have had on our planet up until now.

But how can this be achieved?

going from our entrenched linear method of dealing with waste to a circular economy would require huge changes to the way in which property, possessions and businesses f­unction

It is predicted that by 2050, 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass will be used per year – three times the current average.

Citizens of developed countries consume an average of 16 tons of these same materials per capita (ranging up to 40 or more tons per person in some developed countries). By comparison, the average person in India consumes only 4 tons per year. This stark contrast demonstrates how much resources are taken for granted in the economically developed world, and how this needs to change.

One method of severing the link between development and resource availability is to shift towards a circular economy. This is an ideology whereby there is little to no waste, and instead of items being thrown away once used, the worn-out components are continually replaced.

This idea is similar to how natural ecosystems function (there is no waste in nature). Adopting this kind of lifestyle would separate our reliance on resources from the ability of a nation to develop, but going from our entrenched linear method of dealing with waste to a circular economy would require huge changes to the way in which property, possessions and businesses f­unction.

Although it may be the ideal solution, transitioning to a circular economy would require a huge change in global attitude which will take a great deal of time to develop.

A far more feasible way of working to separate unsustainable resource use from development is … to minimise the use of non-renewable resources

A far more feasible way of working to separate unsustainable resource use from development is simply to minimise the use of non-renewable resources so that it is no longer essential to use them to reach a developed state.

Methods of doing so include adopting new, greener technologies to replace the heavy industries that have been large-scale users of fossil fuels in the past (for example adopting electric arc furnace improvements in the iron and steel industry) and ensuring that fewer high carbon fuels need to be burned to heat homes by improving home insulation, particularly in cooler parts of the world.

By improving the materials, insulation and orientation of buildings (orientations which make the most use of solar gains) energy use in buildings can be cut by 80%.

On top of these examples, using more renewable energy in agriculture and continuing to innovate to create alternatives to unrenewable resources use are further options.

Picture by Joyce Schmatz, distributed via imaggeo (CC BY 3.0). By making agriculture more renewable we can take a step towards decoupling development from resource-use.

It is doubtless that as a country develops, its resource use will increase. However, with awareness of the environmental challenges facing the planet as it is growing, developing countries will be able to tap into the growing renewables industry rather than turning to substantially increased fossil fuel use.

At the end of the day, countries will develop however they are able and it is not up to anyone to dictate how they do this. However, in the interests of meeting UN sustainable development goal 13 – climate action – encouraging sustainable development may be the best way to ensure that as development spreads to more countries, our planet is not significantly affected as a result.

**This article expresses the personal opinions of the author (Heather Britton). These opinions may not reflect an official policy position of Geology for Global Development. **

The ethical questions behind the school climate strike. Do we have a place in earth’s ecosystems? Jesse Zondervan’s February 2019 #GfGDpicks #SciComm

The ethical questions behind the school climate strike. Do we have a place in earth’s ecosystems? Jesse Zondervan’s February 2019 #GfGDpicks #SciComm

Each month, Jesse Zondervan picks his favourite posts from geoscience and development blogs/news which cover the geology for global development interest. This month’s picks include: The ethical questions behind the school climate strike; Military worries about the fight against sea-level rise – how will you help? Do we have a place in earth’s ecosystems?

School climate strikes

As school climate strikes inspired by Greta Thunberg spread across the world in the past month, adults are starting to ask ethical questions.

If one would prefer climate activism to focus on conventional electoral politics, rather than civil disobedience, Rupert Read argues one should question the premise that our societies are fully democratic. If adults have failed, how can we support and listen to our children rather than telling them what to do?

The idea that young people are the key to making positive change to the way we live in our environment is not a new one, but did you ever wonder why? Steve Cohen at Columbia University’s Earth Institute considers how the experiences of the next generation support a survivalist ethic and a change in environmental politics.

The fight against sea-level rise

If the urgency displayed by our children leaves you hungry to roll up your own sleeves, paradoxically it may appear you could help by joining the army to help fight sea-level rise. At a conference on climate change and security at The Hague defence leaders from around the world expressed worry not only for a risk for conflict risks but also of stress on military capacity in all countries with a coastline, not just the poorer nations.

Alternatively, if you have a more entrepreneurial spirit, I would recommend looking at entrepreneurial opportunities for addressing climate change in the developing world.

Sea-level rise and it’s cost is a hot topic this month, with climatologist Radley Horton testifying on capitol hill about sea level rise.

“There has been a lot of focus on whether worst-case scenario for 2100 is 4.3 feet, six feet, or even eight feet of sea level rise,” he said. “Even the most optimistic scenario imaginable—of one foot of sea level rise by 2100—would have direct and profound impacts.”

Indeed, the house market has already responded and cost US coastal home owners nearly 16 billion in property value. Buyout programs in flood-prone areas are becoming more common, even as they come with their own shortcomings.

The insurance industry recognises that investors, lenders, insurers and policymakers undertake significant risk management efforts to minimise rising losses from climate-related hazards. Might more geoscientists be needed here?

As usual, I have many more interesting topics on offer for you, such as: humans have been present in ecosystems for a long stretch of time, so is there a place for us? Check out all stories below!

School climate strikes – an ethical debate

School climate strikes: why adults no longer have the right to object to their children taking radical action by Rupert Read at The Conversation

Youth Strike for Climate and the Ethics of Climate Policy by Steve Cohen at State of the Planet

Climate Adaptation

How Entrepreneurs Can Help Developing Countries Hard Hit by Climate Change by Georgina Campbell Flatter at Entrepeneur

Prepare now for accelerating climate threats, military officials warn by Laura Goering at Thomson Reuters Foundation

There’s a place for us: New research reveals humanity’s roles in ecosystems from the Santa Fe Institute at ScienceDaily

Sand from glacial melt could be Greenland’s economic salvation from University of Colorado Boulder at ScienceDaily

Climate Change Is Having a Major Impact on Global Health by Tanya Lewis at Scientific American

How pollution and greenhouse gases affect the climate in the Sahel by Alessandra Giannini at The Conversation

Investors and lenders need better tools to manage climate risk to homes, mortgages and assets, finds new research at the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership

The fight against sea-level rise

Lamont Climatologist Testifies on Capitol Hill About Sea Level Rise by Marie Denoia Aronsohn at State of the Planet

Rising Seas Soaked Home Owners for $16 Billion over 12 Years by Thomas Frank at E&E News

Leave No House Behind in Flood Buyout Programs, Group Says by Daniel Cusick at E&E News

What rising seas mean for local economies from Stanford University at ScienceDaily

Predicting impacts of climate change

The Ocean Is Running Out of Breath, Scientists Warn by Laura Poppick at Scientific American

Disaster Risk

Large-scale hazard indication mapping for avalanches at the Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF

Norway’s Arctic islands at risk of ‘devastating’ warming: report by Alister Doyle at Thomson Reuters

Observing Volcanoes from Space by Emily Underwood at EOS Earth and Space Science News

The U.S. May Finally Get an Early Warning System For Volcanoes by Robin George Andrews at Earther

Deep sea mining

Deep sea mining threatens indigenous culture in Papua New Guinea by John Childs at The Conversation

 

Check back next month for more picks!

Follow Jesse Zondervan @JesseZondervan. Follow us @Geo_Dev & Facebook.

Circular economy of metals and responsible mining

Circular economy of metals and responsible mining

In today’s post, Bárbara Zambelli, considers how we can transition business models towards a more sustainable way of living, manufacturing and consuming.

As I mentioned before in my post about Urban Geology and Underground Urbanisation, according to the UN report, the current world population of 7.6 billion is expected to reach 8.6 billion in 2030 and 9.8 billion in 2050. In addition, the percentage of the world’s population living in urban areas is growing steadily. In this scenario, it is possible to state that population growth and urbanisation are strongly correlated to mineral and metal consumption. In developed countries, the demand for metals is expected to remain strong to keep up with modern technologies and, in developing countries, due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.

Minerals and metals are required as materials for infrastructure and constructions (e.g. aggregates, cement, iron, steel, aluminium, copper, alloys), implements for agriculture (e.g. phosphorus and limestone) and essential components of “green” technologies such as solar panels and wind energy (lithium, cobalt, cadmium, REE). The increased consumption we face nowadays requires a great amount of metals which cannot be supplied by natural resources. We already consume more than we can replace and our finite resources are being depleted.

In this context, circular economy represents a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the transition of business models towards a more sustainable way of living, manufacturing and consuming.

What is circular economy?

Generally, it can be understood as a “cyclical closed-loop system”.

The United Nations Environmental Programme defines circular economy as “one which balances economic development with environmental and resource protection, with the aims to ‘design out’ waste, return nutrients and recycle durables, using renewable energy to power the economy”.

A really interesting paper discusses the concepts and applications of circular economy in Global context, its tensions and limitations.

The authors proposed the redefinition for circular economy as “an economic model wherein planning, resourcing, procurement, production and  reprocessing are designed and managed, as both process and output, to maximize ecosystem functioning and human well-being”.

Circular economy opposes the model of linear economy, in which natural resources are turned into waste via production. It assumes unlimited supply of natural resources and unlimited capacity of the environment to absorb waste. On the other hand, circular economy is conceived as having no net effect on the environment, furthermore, it ensures little generation of waste during the production process. The circular economy relies on the idea of recycling products, using waste as resources, helping to tackle unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

China is the pioneer in the implementation and development of circular economy strategy at national level. With almost 1.4 billion people (around 19% of the world figure), it is of vital interest worldwide that China adopts economic and sustainable business practices. Moreover, other parts of the world are adopting the concept of circular economy to keep resources in economic use for as long as possible. To give some examples, there is the UK initiative Ellen MacArthur Foundation, founded in 2010. In 2014, the European Commision launched  their own programme named Towards a Circular Economy: a zero waste programme for Europe. In Brazil also there are projects like this, developed into the Federal University of Santa Catarina to promote the circular economy.

However circular economy may seems to solve our problems regarding raw materials and metals supply, that are some important points to highlight. It is crucial to take into account the metal cycles and flows in the system of each metal to understand the environmental impacts associated to each phase of the cycle, since raw material extraction to the end of life. Another important feature is that circular economy relies on metallurgy, technology and understanding of product design (mineralogy). The recovery rate of each metal depends on the combination of those three factors. In addition, there are some companies recycling atoms for some metals, although these processes are energy-intensive and recover the metals part-only.

Despite the idea of designing products that last much longer appears useful, longevity is not always efficient ecologically. The issue of flux should be central and procrastinating the cycle through exotic chemistry may not be an appropriate strategy.

Finally, even though circular economy has an amazing potential for reducing the need of raw materials, stop mining primary resources is nearly impossible. In this manner, we should promote responsible mining when circular economy is not applicable.

Back to Basics – Geology and International Development (Part 3/4)

How can an understanding of geology support and strengthen international development?

Picture7

 #7 – Identifying, extracting and managing natural resources, including appropriate environmental protection and post-mining restoration. Minerals and other natural resources are used in every sphere of society – every mobile phone, every computer, every wind-turbine. The income these can raise, also offers an exciting opportunity for countries to promote development, investing in jobs, infrastructure and capital funds to support ongoing development work. Mining that effectively supports development requires an approach that is transparent, risk-averse and upholds human rights – as noted in the ICMM 10 Sustainable Development Principles.

Picture8

 #8 – Environmental Management – Our understanding of the Earth’s past and current processes can help to inform and improve our management of key Earth systems to improve the natural environment, habitats, livelihoods and human wellbeing. It draws on many key geoscience skills, ranging from geochemistry, to environmental modelling. It encompasses areas already discussed (water, natural resources, hazard management) but also many other key areas, particularly contaminant (and medical) geology. An interesting example can be seen in the UK media today, where studies of mass extinctions and their relationship to ocean acidification in geological history can help us to improve our environmental management today – http://tinyurl.com/n99n2hr

Picture9

#9 Geo-Education. Many of the ‪#‎GfGDBasics‬ #1-8 listed in previous days (e.g., water and sanitation, disaster risk reduction, environmental management) are topics where members of the public have information to input, and crucial information that they need to know. Integrating geo-education into the curricula of primary and secondary education empower communities with a knowledge that can be transformative.

For more images and key themes, see Part 1/4 and Part 2/4 of this series and keep an eye on our Facebook page over the coming days and weeks.