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GeoPolicy: COP23 – key updates and outcomes

GeoPolicy: COP23 – key updates and outcomes

What is COP23?

Anthropogenic climate change is threatening life on this planet as we know it. It’s a global issue… and not one that is easily solved. The Conference of the Parties (COP) provides world leaders, policy workers, scientists and industry leaders with the space to share ideas and decide on how to tackle climate change and generate global transformative change. COP23 will predominantly focus on increasing involvement from non-state actors (such as cities and businesses), how to minimise the climate impacts on vulnerable countries and the steps that are needed to implement the Paris Climate Change Agreement.

Hold on – what’s the Paris Climate Change Agreement…?

You’ve probably heard about the Paris Climate Change Agreement (often shortened to just Paris Agreement) before, but what exactly does it refer to?

During the COP21, held in Paris during 2015, 175 parties (174 countries and the European Union) reached a historic agreement in response to the current climate crisis. This Paris Agreement builds on previous UN frameworks and agreements. It acknowledges climate change as a global threat and that preventing the Earth’s temperature from rising more than 2°C should be a global priority. The only nations not to sign the agreement were Syria, due to their involvement in a civil war and their inability to send a delegation, and Nicaragua, who stated that the agreement was insufficiently ambitious. Both of these countries have since signed the agreement while the US has unfortunately made headlines by leaving it.

The Paris Agreement states that there should be a thorough action plan that details how the Paris Agreement should be implemented by COP24 in 2018. There is still a long way to go before this action plan is finalised but COP23 was able to make a strong headway.

You can learn more about the UN climate frameworks and Paris Climate Change Agreement here or read more about COP21 here.

What did the COP23 achieve?

Today is the last official day of the COP23 and while it is often difficult to determine whether large scale political events are successful until after the dust has settled, there are some positive signs.

1. Making progress on the Paris Agreement action plan

The COP23 has been described as an implementation and ‘roll-up-your-sleeves’ kind of COP. While the COP21 resulted in a milestone agreement, the COP23 was about determining what staying below 2°C actually entails – what needs to be done and when. Some of the measures discussed to keep us under 2°C included: halving global CO2 emissions from energy and industry each decade, scrapping the $500 billion per year in global fossil fuel subsidies and scaling up carbon capture and storage technology. Simple, right?

These actions are all feeding into the detailed “rulebook” on how the Paris Agreement should be implemented which will be finalised at COP24.

2. Cities have stepped up to the plate

Mayors from 25 cities around the world have pledged to produce net zero emissions by 2050 through ambitious climate action plans which will be developed with the help of the C40 Cities network. Having tangible examples of what net zero emissions looks like and how it can be achieved will hopefully encourage other cities to follow suit. For this reason “think global, act local” initiatives are also picking up steam.

A new global standard for reporting cities’ greenhouse gas emissions has also been announced by the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy. The system will allow cities to track their contributions and impacts using a quantifiable method. This will not only allow the UNFCCC to track the progress of cities more effectively but it may also result in a friendly competition with cities around the globe. It is also expected that all cities will have a decarbonisation strategy in place by 2020.

3. Phasing out coal by 2030?

19 Countries (ranging from Angola to the UK) have committed to phasing out unabated coal generation by 2030. Unabated coal-powered energy generation refers to the generation of electricity from a coal plant without the use of treatment or carbon capture storage technology (which generally reduces emissions from between 85-90%). With 40% of the world’s electricity currently being generated from coal, this commitment is clearly a huge step in the right direction that will hopefully put pressure on other nations and steer energy investment towards lower-emission sources.

4. There is the will to change… and the funding is there too!

One of the key features of the Paris Agreement was the amount of financial aid committed, 100 billion USD annually by 2020, from developed countries to support developing states mitigate their emissions. While this level of funding is still far from being reached, the aim to jointly mobilise 100 billion USD annually by 2020 was reiterated.

The French President, Emmanuel Macron, also announced that Europe will fill the funding gap in the IPCC budget that was left by the US’ withdrawal from the Paris Agreement.

 

The Green Climate Fund booth at the COP23 exhibition area. Credit: Jonathan Bamber

 

Other outcomes

Not only do COPs generally result in solid outcomes and agreements being made but they also go a long way to strengthen global unity and the belief that we are able to tackle climate change despite it being a huge and often daunting problem. This was also highlighted by Jonathan Bamber, the EGU President, who attended the event, “It was so impressive to see politicians, policy makers and scientists all striving hard to ensure that the world’s economies achieve the goals laid out in COP21 in Paris. There was a lot of energy for change and action and much less cynicism than I have witnessed at previous COP events. I really hope it helps steer us towards a more sustainable future“.

While these are just a few of the immediately obvious results from the COP23, I am sure that there will be more agreements and outcomes announced within the next few days. Keep tuned to the GeoPolicy Blog for more updates!

Further reading

 

Malawi High School Teacher’s Workshop on Natural Hazards

Malawi High School Teacher’s Workshop on Natural Hazards

In July 2017, Professor Bruce Malamud and Dr Faith Taylor from King’s College London travelled to Mzuzu, Malawi to work in collaboration with Mr James Kushe from Mzuzu University, Malawi. They delivered an EGU funded workshop at Mzuzu University to high school teachers on natural hazards, with major funding provided by EGU, and also supported by Urban ARK and Mzuzu University. Faith and Bruce explain more about the trip…

Malawi is a small (118,000 km2) landlocked country in south eastern Africa, often referred to as the ‘warm heart of Africa’ due to its stability, safety, beauty and warm welcome to visitors. Yet behind this warm welcome, life for many in Malawi is hard; with an average GDP per capita of US$0.82 per day, high (although improving) prevalence of HIV-AIDs, tuberculosis and malaria and a range of natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, lightening, hail, strong winds and drought.

Although we are biased, we think life is particularly hard for Malawian Geography teachers who have a great responsibility to shape the next generation of big-thinkers and problem-solvers against the challenges such as (i) large class sizes, (ii) limited opportunity for teachers’ continued professional development and (iii) under-resourcing of schools.

With this in mind, Bruce, James and I applied for EGU funding to run a workshop for teachers on natural hazards, focusing particularly on: (i) collating and developing low-cost teaching demonstrations, (ii) equipping teachers with further information about natural hazards and (iii) learning more about their home city of Mzuzu as a resource for field trips.

Professor Bruce Malamud demonstrating seismic waves using a giant slinky.

In the months running up to the workshop, we prepared 16 Gb USB sticks for each teacher which included >35 teaching demos that we had created and/or reviewed, and then trialled, 77 videos that we selected from the many out there, 11 digital posters and 16 factsheets and 14 Powerpoint lectures from our own teaching. We also started to order a few resources that would be hard to come by in Malawi, such as slinkies for teaching about earthquake waves and mento tubes for demonstrating volcanic eruptions (try explaining a suitcase of slinkies to a customs official!).

In Mzuzu, James visited each highschool to explain the purposes of our workshop and get local interest, planned a fieldtrip to the Massassa region and started to purchase locally available resources for teaching demonstrations, such as jars and sand for teaching about the angle of repose with regard to landslides.

Upon arrival at the Mzuzu University library, where we held the workshop, we were greeted by 27 high school teachers who had travelled from up to a couple of hours away to spend three days with us. The schools they came from varied in terms of resourcing, teachers’ background and experience, but all teachers were enthusiastic about the opportunity to learn more (note to others, teachers were particularly keen on further EGU funded workshops on other topics!).

Over the three days, we delivered interactive undergraduate level lectures on a range of natural hazards, so that teachers would better understand the process behind many of the hazards, interspersed with over two dozen activities and teaching demonstrations that they could bring back to the classroom. We also had a half day microadventure facilitated by one of the teachers to a local area that had been affected by flooding and landslides. This was a good reminder that geography starts on the doorstep, and does not require expensive fieldtrips to exotic destinations to help students experience environmental phenomena and solidify their classroom based learning. There were also opportunities for the teachers to share some of their best practice – and from this, we hope the seed has been sown for teachers to establish their own professional network for sharing ideas and resources.

We have travelled to Malawi multiple times over the past few years as part of our work on the Urban ARK project where we look at multi-hazard risk to infrastructure. From this work, we know how challenging it can be for information and ideas to flow to those experiencing and managing risks. We left Malawi feeling hopeful that through those 27 bright and enthusiastic teachers, we might reach >2000 students, and through those students we might also reach their friends and family to help reduce disaster risk across the Mzuzu region.

In the coming months we will share some of the resources we generated and collated online. There is a clear need for further workshops like this across Malawi, and an appetite for building a network of teachers. It took a lot of planning and partnerships with local academics but we would strongly encourage others to consider running similar workshops for teachers in the warm heart of Africa.

By Faith Taylor and Bruce Malamud, King’s College London

September GeoRoundUp: the best of the Earth sciences from around the web

September GeoRoundUp: the best of the Earth sciences from around the web

Drawing inspiration from popular stories on our social media channels, as well as unique and quirky research news, this monthly column aims to bring you the best of the Earth and planetary sciences from around the web.

Major story and what you might have missed

This month has been an onslaught of  Earth and space science news; the majority focusing on natural hazards. Hurricanes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been dominating headlines, but here we also highlight some other natural disasters which have attracted far fewer reports. Quickly recap on an action-packed month with our overview, complete with links:

Hurricanes

Thought the Atlantic hurricane season is far from over, 2017 has already shattered records: since 1st June 13 storms have been named, of which seven have gone onto become hurricanes and two registered as a category 5 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. In September, Hurricanes Irma, Katia and Jose batter Caribbean islands, Mexico and the Southern U.S.; hot on the heels of the hugely destructive Hurricane Harvey which made landfall in Texas and Louisiana at the end of August. Images captured by NASA’s Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat 8 satellite show the scale of the damage caused by Hurricane Irma; while photos reveal the dire situation unfolding in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria.  OCHA, the United Nations Office for the coordinate of Human Affairs, released an infographic showing the impact the 2017 hurricane season has had on Caribbean islands (correct of 22nd September).

Earthquakes

At the same time, two powerful earthquakes shook Mexico in the space of 12 days causing chaos, building collapse and hundreds of fatalities.

Rumbling volcanoes

In the meantime, all eyes on the Indonesian island of Bali have been on Mount Agung which has already forced the evacuation of almost 100,000 people as the volcano threatens to erupt for the first time in 54 years. Unprecedented seismic activity around the volcano has been increasing, though no eruptive activity has been recorded yet.

Further south, the government of Vanuatu, a South Pacific Ocean nation, declared a state of emergency and ordered the evacuation of all 11,000 residents of Ambae island, as activity of its volcano, Manaro, increased. The New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) sent an aircraft to fly over the volcano on Tuesday and discovered plumes of smoke, ash and volcanic rocks erupting from the crater.

Map of volcanic hazards for Ambae in Vanuatu. Credit: Vanatu Meteorology & Geo-hazard Department (vmgd).

The rainy season floods

The summer months mark the onset of the rainy season in regions of Sub-Saharan Africa which experience a savanna climate. Across the Arabian Sea, including the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, also sees the onset of the monsoon.

Since June, widespread flooding brought on by heavy rainfall has left 56 dead and more than 185,000 homeless in Niger, one of the world’s poorest countries. But the crisis is not restricted to Niger, throughout the summer floods (and associated land and mudslides) in Africa are thought to have claimed 25 times more lives than Hurricane Harvey did.

Meanwhile Mumbai struggled when the heaviest rainfall since 2005 was recorded on 29th August, with most of Northern India experiencing widespread flooding. So far, the UN estimates that 1,200 people have lost their lives across Nepal, India and Bangladesh as a result of the rains. The Red Cross estimates that at least 41 million people have been affected by the flooding and causing the onset of a humanitarian crisis.

Record breaking temperatures and fires

Australia’s record-breaking spring heat (Birdsville, in Queensland’s outback, broke a weather record as temperatures hit 42.5C and Sydney recorded its hottest ever September day) combined with an unusually dry winter means the country is bracing itself for a particularly destructive bushfire season. Already fires rage, uncontrolled (at the time of writing), in New South Wales.

The western United States and Canada suffered one of its worst wildfire seasons to date. Earlier this month, NASA released a satellite image which showed much of the region covered in smoke. High-altitude aerosols from those fires were swept up by prevailing winds and carried across the east of the continent. By 7th September the particles were detected over Ireland, the U.K and northern France, including Paris.

Europe’s forest fire has been hugely devastating too. Much of the Mediterranean and the region North of the Black Sea continues to be in high danger of forest fires following a dry and hot summer. Fires are active in the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, and Germany (among others). Over 2,000 hectares were recently scorched by wildfires in the central mountainous area of Tejeda in Gran Canaria.

Links we liked

  • This month saw the end of NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and ESA’s Huygens probe’s spectacular journey to Saturn. After two decades of science, the mission ended on 15th September as the spacecraft crashed into the giant planet.
  • The last day of August marks the end of the Greenland snow melt season, so September was busy for scientists evaluating how the Greenland ice sheet fared in 2017.
  • “Few disciplines in today’s world play such a significant role in how society operates and what we can do to protect our future,” writes Erik Klemetti (Assoc. Prof. at Denison University), in his post on why college students should study geology.
  • The BBC launched The Prequel to its much anticipated Blue Planet II, a natural history progamme about the Earth’s oceans. Narrated by Sir Sir David Attenborough, the series will featured music by Hans Zimmer and Radiohead. The trailer is a true feast for the eyes. Don’t miss it!

The EGU story

Is it an earthquake, a nuclear test or a hurricane? How seismometers help us understand the world we live in.

Although traditionally used to study earthquakes, like the M 8.1 earthquake in Mexico,  seismometers have now become so sophisticated they are able to detect the slightest ground movements; whether they come from deep within the bowels of the planet or are triggered by events at the surface. But how, exactly, do earthquake scientists decipher the signals picked up by seismometers across the world? And more importantly, how do they know whether they are caused by an earthquake, nuclear test or a hurricane?

To find out we asked Neil Wilkins (a PhD student at the University of Bristol) and Stephen Hicks (a seismologist at the University of Southampton) to share some insights with our readers earlier on this month.

New Dimensions for Natural Hazards in Asia: the first AOGS–EGU Joint Conference

New Dimensions for Natural Hazards in Asia: the first AOGS–EGU Joint Conference

Asia is one of the most natural disaster-prone regions on the globe. Overpopulation and limited resources mean that natural hazards hit local populations particularly hard.

“It doesn’t matter which index or evaluation method you use, Asia will always unfortunately come out on top when it comes to fatalities and damage from natural hazard events,” explains Dr. Adam Switzer, a member of the conference’s Executive Organizing Committee.

To provide a global platform, which brings together participants from across the world and addresses the challenges which need to be unraveled, as well as the potential solutions, the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) and EGU have partner to host their very first joint meeting.

With Taal Volcano as the spectacular backdrop, students, early career and established scientists will gather in the Philippines from the 4th to 8th February 2018, to discuss current advances in knowledge and new perspectives relevant to natural hazards in the Asian region.

“We hope that this conference will be a fundamental new step to addressing some of the most pressing hazard problems in the region by bringing together some of the world’s top hazard practitioners in the physical, social and political sciences,” goes on to say Switzer.

The meeting will boast an innovative format, with the organisers actively sidestepping the tradition conference triple Ss: sections, sessions and silos. Instead, the programme is arranged in a series of themes which, through panels, discussion groups, networking and poster introductions, will explore seven overarching topics: from natural hazards in the megacity, to multi-hazard interactions, right through to the transient and long-term effects of catastrophic perturbations.

Niels Hovius, also of the conference’s Executive Organizing Committee, adds: “we strive for a programme that explores the connectivity between processes, cause and effect, a programme that acknowledges the fact that many natural disasters have an important time dynamic, lasting much longer than the initial impact.”

The conference abstract submission is currently open, so if your research falls within one of the conference themes, consider contributing to the meeting. But hurry! Abstract submission closes on 31st August 2017.

As well as discussing and sharing advances in natural hazards science, conference participants will get the opportunity to experience the impacts of natural hazards first hand.

The Philippines is, unfortunately, rich with natural hazards and as such provides a wealth of opportunity to investigate the physical, social and economic aspects of numerous natural hazards through a series of conference field trips.  

“The recent earthquake in Bohol, the 1991 Pinatubo eruption and the devastation and recovery from 2013 Typhoon Haiyan are all part of the field program,” highlights Switzer.

Not only that, the conference takes place in a sought-after location, by tourists and locals alike. The Taal Vista Hotel is deeply rooted in the heritage of Tagaytay City. Overlooking Lake Taal, with views which stretch out over Taal volcano, it is also only a little over an hour away from the bustling city of Manila.

“There are a large range of very affordable to more luxurious accommodations available in Tagatay, although early booking is encouraged as the area is a popular one for tourism due to its environmental beauty,” points out Bruce Malamud, of the conference’s Executive Organizing Committee.

The AOGS-EGU conference is accessible and affordable for both early career and more senior researchers from around the globe. It hopes to bring together the international research community, with the scientific programme, as well as its spectacular setting, suited to natural hazard scholars and practitioners alike.

The Executive Organizing Committee also hopes that its appeal will transcend the geosciences and that the meeting’s themes will attract those dealing with other aspects of natural disasters: medics, planners, managers, educators and more.

“It is important that we have dialogues that reach beyond the confines of our disciplines,” says Hovius, “For me, this conference will be an opportunity to see some iconic sites, but also to make contacts with local researchers who may be interested in joining international projects targeting multi-hazards, transient response and anomalous events.”

Visit the conference website for all the meeting details. Among the website pages you’ll find information about the conference themes, abstract submission requirements and an overview of the meeting programme. Early bird registrations (until 23rd November 2017) receive a heavily discounted rate, as do AOGS and EGU members. Students also benefit from reduced registration fees.

The website is also packed with logistical information, from details about the conference venue, through to what you can expect to eat, see and do in Tagaytay City. You can also find out if you require a visa for travel to the Philippines and what to do if you are a national of a non-visa exempt country.

By Laura Roberts (EGU Communications Officer) in collaboration with the AOGS–EGU Joint Conference Executive Organizing Committee

For inquiries about the conference please contact Meeting Matters International (nathazards@meetmatt.net). Further contact information is available on the Joint Conference website. You can also receive updates about the conference on Facebook.