SM
Seismology
Marina Corradini

Marina Corradini

Marina is an Italian PhD Candidate at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. In her work she investigates the relation between the rupture complexity and the high-frequency seismic radiation through the use of a back-projection technique. When she is not in her office, she works as a science communicator at ‘Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie’ of Paris. Marina is the Editor of the EGU Seismology blog. As ECS-reps she would like to promote gender equality in geoscience and explore how the society currently supports postgraduate and postdoctoral female researchers in their career progression. You can reach her at corradini[at]ipgp.fr

Seismo @ school

Being a seismologist is not just doing research, it is also sharing experience and teaching the next generation.
As early career scientists, we are used to share ‘our science’ during open days and career days at university. Another peculiar moment for Science outreach is the National Science week, where researchers can set up experiments and exhibitions to draw the attention of the general public (both children and adults). During this week, you’d probably get the chance to see the building response to an earthquake, the ground motion recorded by a seismometer, the inner structure of the Earth…
In addition to these actions, a seismologist can also be of help in teaching Earth Sciences and Seismology at school. That’s what we call educational seismology. We provide accessible materials (instruments, lecture notes and practical examples) to guide high school teachers during their Earth Sciences courses.

 

Ever heard of a LEGO seismometer?

Figure 1. BGS Lego seismometer

 

In the UK, the educational seismology is driven by the British Geological Survey which recently proposed to build a LEGO seismometer (figure 1).

 

If you’re skeptical and wondering whether this instrument could actually detect an earthquake, let’s have a look at the seismic trace (in blue) recorded at the bottom!

 

Figure 2. M6.9 earthquake in Japan recorded by the Lego seismometer in a school (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/hazards/earthquakes/schoolSeismology/seismometers/lego.html)

 

 

But what is educational seismology?

Educational seismology aims at explaining to students of all ages how seismologists interpret a seismogram and locate an earthquake, the concept of earthquake magnitude, the seismic cycle and the seismic risk, and so on.
Another key point of the educational seismology is to provide seismic instruments for teaching purpose [Virieux, 2000; Zollo et al. 2014]. For example, “SISMOS à l’École” in France [Courboulex et al. 2012; Berenguer et al. 2013 and 2014], which celebrated in 2016 its 20th year anniversary, managed to install 75 seismometers in several schools (figure 3). It is a good opportunity for students to see what a seismometer looks like and to observe earthquakes recorded by a seismometer. Moreover, the data recorded by the instruments are useful for the seismic community and available for research purpose on the IRIS database.

 

Figure 3. At the top: location of seismic instruments of SISMOS à l’École (http://www.edusismo.org). At the bottom: distribution of seismic stations in France. Green triangles show instruments currently active. Red triangles show inactive instruments.

 

Useful material for practical purpose:

Figure 4. Simulation of a seismic wave generated by the mass motion on a rough surface and recorded by an accelerometer.

In the beginning of July, Michelle Salmon from the Australian Seismometers in Schools [Balfour et al. 2014] gave a short workshop at the annual conference of the Australian Science Teacher Association (ASTA) and provided materials for high school teachers. At the end of the session, the small group of 15 teachers left with news ideas for their students and some useful materials for practical purpose (figure 4).

 

Another useful tool for teaching seismology is the IRIS earthquake browser. From this interface, you can select a list of earthquakes and plot them on a map showing plate boundaries. In addition, you can produce 3D cross section for a selected region and see the distribution in depth of earthquakes located along subduction zones or mid-oceanic ridges (figure 5).

Figure 5. Location of earthquakes in Central America. Colour scale shows the depth of these events. At the bottom right, the 3D cross section associated with this region with a domain of mid-oceanic ridge in the western part and the subduction zone beneath the central/South America in the eastern part.

 

 

Educational resources for high school teachers are available on different websites (IRIS, AuSiS, Edusismo) and free to access. If you are interested to help the community, or you have some ideas and want to teach the next generation, do not hesitate to make contact with one of the members working in the field.

 

Upcoming events:

 

 

References 
Balfour, N.,Salmon, M, Sambridge, M. (2014). The Australian Seismometers in Schools network: Education outreach, research and monitoring, SRL, 85, 5,1063-1068.
Berenguer, J. L. , Courboulex, F., Balestra, J., Nolet, G., Lognonne, P. (2014). Innovative Resources for seismology@school with the French educational seismological network. AGU Fall meeting abstract.
Berenguer, J. L., Courboulex, F., Tocheport, A., Bouin, M.P. (2013). Tuned in to the Earth from the school Edusismo: The French educational seismological network. Bulletin de la société géologique de France, 184,1-2,183-187.
Courboulex, F., Berenguer, J. L., Tocheport A., Bouin, M. P., Calais, E., Esnault Y., Larroque, C., Nolet, G., Virieux, J., Sismos à l’École (2012): A worldwide network of real-time seismometers in Schools, SRL, 83,5, 870-873.
Virieux, J. (2000). Educational seismological project : EDUSEIS, SRL, 71, 5, 530-535.
Zollo, A., Bobbio, A., Berenguer, J. L., Courboulex, F. Denton, P., Festa, G., Sauron, A., Solarino, S. Haslinger, F., Giardini, D. (2014) The European experience of educational seismology. Geoscience research and outreach, 145-170.

 

 

This post was written by Walid Ben Mansour, with revisions from Marina Corradini

 

Walid Ben Mansour is a post-doctoral research fellow at Macquarie University. He works on multi-observable probabilistic tomography for different targets (mining, seismic hazard). You can reach him at walid.benmansour[at]mq.edu.au

4th TIDES Advanced Training School

The 4th TIDES Advanced Training School was held in Prague, Czech Republic, from the 2nd to the 6th of July 2018. If you missed it, take a look at Michaela and Eric’s short report:

 

Eric Loeberich

It’s the first Sunday of July. It could have been a calm sunny noon in Vienna, but that’s not my plan for today, I’ve to catch a train in 45 minutes! I check the room, take my luggage, ready to start my journey. The next week will be pretty interesting, TIDES (Time Dependent Seismology), an action supported by the COST Association (European funded framework aiming at an enhanced transnational cooperation within the science community), organizes an advanced training school in Prague. What a great opportunity to widen my knowledge and to establish contacts with other early career scientists (ECS) and seismic experts! I’m sure to meet familiar faces… One of them is Michaela. We already attended some workshops together and since this year we are both part of the ECS-representatives team.

 

Michaela Wenner

After a turbulent week of fieldwork, my journey continues to Prague to attend the TIDES training school. This year’s topic is ‘near surface processes’, which perfectly fits my current research project. Near surface processes often include a lot of  fieldwork, as does my PhD, but during this week I hope to sit back and listen to the most experienced people in the community. An airport full of ryan-air tourists makes me saying goodbye to my city quite easy and I’m curious what Prague has to offer. As Eric, I am happy to see some of the people I had the pleasure to meet during my short career but haven’t seen in a while.

 

 

Sunset in Prague – © Eric Loeberich

 

 

The kind of creepy forest – especially by night without lights – leading up to the hotel sets a beautiful scenery for the conference. Many nights of networking on the terrace lie ahead of us – after a dense scientific program, of course. Indeed, the expert talks about earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciers, landslides, reservoirs, cities and other near surface processes gave a good overview on current knowledge and advances in these fields.
Cutting edge science – mostly by ECS – was then presented in the afternoons in short talks and posters. And after work follows the fun – at TIDES 2018 in the form of concerts, drinks and tango lessons. We have the impression that even though we heard many interesting talks and discussed our research, the training school was mostly based on networking. One attempt to include the trainees better into the discussions was conducted via a question hour after lunch. Basically groups of four trainees had to discuss the morning talks over lunch and come up with questions. This was at first met with not too much enthusiasm amongst the trainees, but turned out to be quite interesting with many answered questions.
All in all, we had a great time in Prague and are sad to see that this was the last training school within the TIDES action. We hope that there will be similar programmes soon, that allow ECS to get a better idea of what is going on within the community and to network with potential collaborators.

 

This post was written by Michaela Wenner and Eric Loeberich, with revisions from Marina Corradini

 

Michaela Wenner is a PhD student at ETH Zurich. She works on seismic signals of mass movements, such as rockfalls, debris flows and ice avalanches. You can reach her at wenner[at]vaw.baug.ethz.ch

Eric Loeberich is a PhD student at the University of Vienna. He works on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, as produced by lattice-preferred orientation of olivine in lithosphere and asthenosphere. You can reach him at: eric.loeberich[at]univie.ac.at