Geology for Global Development

Water and Sanitation

GfGD Annual Report 2018

Our 2018 Annual Report highlights our achievements last year, how these link with our strategy, and presents an overview of our finances.

We had many exciting opportunities in 2018 to influence the global sustainable development agenda and represent geoscience in places where it otherwise would not have been included. For example, we contributed a commissioned paper to the 2nd International Commission on Education for Sustainable Development Practice Report outlining how geoscience graduates can be integrated into sustainability programmes. We also attended the 3rd UN Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs at the UN Headquarters in New York, advocating for the importance of geoscience in dialogue about cities, energy, water, and responsible production and consumption.

Our 6th Annual Conference focused on water and sustainable development and was opened by Lord Ian Duncan, the UK Government Minister for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Building on this theme, we launched a new international programme, partnering with The Eleanor Foundation to evaluate the sustainability of water programmes in Tanzania. We generated a small surplus in 2018, allowing us to commit to this new project.

We published a briefing note with other UK partners to demonstrate how geoscience is critical to the SDGs, and continued to invest in our network of University Groups around the UK that collectively engage hundreds of geoscience students through talks, humanitarian and development mapathons, conference visits and fundraising activities.

Download our 2018 Annual Report to read more.
You can access all of our Annual Reports on our website.

Flooding in some of the world’s most at-risk cities

Flooding in some of the world’s most at-risk cities

What are cities doing to mitigate rising sea-levels? What are the numbers behind the related challenges? In our August ‘Coast’ month, Heather Britton focuses on sea-level rise in the coastal cities of Jakarta, Lagos and London, where barriers and new islands are likely proposed solutions, even if they seem inadequate. [Editor’s note: This post reflects Heather’s personal opinions. These opinions may not reflect official policy positions of Geology for Global Development.]

It is safe to say that the impacts of climate change will be felt in some parts of the world more than others, and that in many regions these impacts are already making themselves apparent. One of the inevitable consequences of global warming is rising sea levels, caused by the dual effects of melting ice caps and the expansion of water volume in the oceans with increased temperatures, amongst other factors. In this week’s blog, I intend to focus on three cities which are under threat from flooding due to sea-level change, and look at how they are coping with the problem of sinking into the sea.

Jakarta

Jakarta is the world’s fastest sinking city, sinking on average 15 cm every year.

Jakarta is the world’s fastest sinking city, sinking on average 15 cm every year. Situated next to the Java sea, and home to 30 million people, there is a very real danger that this city will soon be completely submerged. The source of the problem is not, however, purely sea-level rise, but also to the fact that the city itself is sinking. This is not a purely geological issue and relates to a lack of sources of clean drinking water in the capital. The surface drinking water sources are too polluted to be considered safe places to drink, and a significant number of people are forced to dig their own illegal wells in order to access the cleaner, groundwater reservoirs. Draining the aquifers on which the city rests is causing the gradual subsidence of the region, but until clean drinking water is available to even the poorest of Jakarta’s residents, the problem is likely to continue into the future.

Current measures to combat the flooding are minimal, although various government officials have tried and failed to make a difference, for example by beginning a clean-up of waterways in the city and setting out plans to develop at least a rudimentary sewage system. The city’s most ambitious move has been the construction of the city’s coastal wall (which will likely be submerged itself by 2030). This has been constructed in collaboration with the Dutch government in a project called the National Capital Integrated Coastal Development program. A further idea associated with this project is to put an even larger sea wall off the coast of Indonesia, essentially cutting off Jakarta from the rest of the Java sea. Critics, however, say that without solving the problems that are leading to flooding within the city, building larger and larger barriers to keep out the sea is likely to be ineffective.

Lagos

A large-scale idea to grow the economy in Lagos is to create a new financial centre, on a new ‘island’ called Eko Atlantic.

Lagos (Portuguese for lakes) is one of the most populous cities in Africa. Climate change has contributed to extreme storms, rainfall and rising sea levels, aggravating a flooding problem that has severely affected this country for decades. The people of Lagos are living on what is essentially a series of islands. Much of the city was built on top of swampland, which has since been reclaimed and settled, destroying one of the barriers which would have protected the city from the ever-encroaching ocean. Poor infrastructural planning has meant that most of the ground surface in the city is impenetrable, and water simply has nowhere to go but remain on the surface, taking days to drain away and leaving thousands impacted by flooding year upon year. One example of this is the terrible flooding that the city experienced in 2012.

A large-scale idea to grow the economy in Lagos is to create a new financial centre, on a new ‘island’ called Eko Atlantic. Plans for this island have, to some extent, considered the flooding risk – the centre will be surrounded by a sea wall – but this would likely worsen the flooding situation elsewhere. The effect on the poor, who make up 70% of the city’s population, would be greatest, as the slums of the city sit in the city’s lagoon regions where floodwater is most likely to pool and cause the greatest disruption to residents.

The Thames barrier in London, Stevebidmead on pixabay.

When constructed, it was thought that this barrier might be closed every 2 – 3 years. The current rate of closure is currently double this, at 6 – 7 closures a year, and this is only likely to increase.

London

During the last ice age, the North of the UK was weighed down under the weight of the ice that was amassed there. After this ice melted, isostatic rebound has resulted in the uplift of Scotland by ~ 1 mm, accompanied by the sinking of the south, including the UK capital city of London.

The Thames Barrier was constructed in response to the flood risk in London and was made operational in 1982. The structure is designed to protect the city against 1 in 100-year flooding events. When storm surges combine with high tide, waters can rise by up to 2 m, making this one of the regular causes of flooding in the city. When constructed, it was thought that this barrier might be closed every 2 – 3 years. The current rate of closure is currently double this, at 6 – 7 closures a year, and this is only likely to increase. With the impact of climate change, sea levels could have risen up to 115 cm by 2100, if emissions continue at the current rate.

There is hope that this prediction will not be the case, however. The UK has committed to net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 and is the first country to do so. This demonstrates the ambition to combat climate change and minimise warming, but many argue that a 2050 target is not ambitious enough to prevent most of the adverse impacts that we are already beginning to see materialising around the world today.

Cities are going to have to adapt to increased flood risk if they are to survive in a world that has warmed by 1.5 degrees Celsius or greater, and these examples are just a few of those that are at risk. In achieving UN Sustainability Goals 11 (sustainable cities and communities) and 9 (Industry, innovation and Infrastructure), flood adaptation measures will be more essential than ever before.

**This article expresses the personal opinions of the author (Heather Britton). These opinions may not reflect an official policy position of Geology for Global Development. **

Tracking water consumption: how you can help fight climate-change-driven water stress

Tracking water consumption: how you can help fight climate-change-driven water stress

How much water do you think you’re using? When you eat 200 g of beef, you are using more than 3,000 liters of water. Regular blog author Bárbara Zambelli helps us understand how we can alleviate climate-change-related water stress in countries around the world, just through our choices of consumption. [Editor’s note: This post reflects Bárbara’s personal opinions. These opinions may not reflect official policy positions of Geology for Global Development.]

This month our blog theme is resources, and I chose to write about water, not only because it is our most basic need but also as it is the basis of all goods, products and resources that we use.

Freshwater, like any other natural resource, is unevenly distributed on Earth’s surface, leading to physical scarcity in many parts of the globe, while other regions are suffering from floods and heavy rain events. So, we have to deal with water scarcity problems every time that water is too little, too much or too dirty.

The largest share of water is used in agriculture and industry, whilst direct uses (such as drinking, cooking, bathing, cleaning and so on) are responsible for only a small amount

Another reason to be alert is that, according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, 47% of the world’s population will suffer from water shortage by 2030. In this article, in order to better discuss sustainable water usage, I want to explore some important concepts in the following paragraphs.

Virtual water is the first one: it is related to indirect water used for different purposes, such as growing crops, energy production or transportation. Let’s take an example from food production – Do you know how much water is necessary to produce 1 kg of beef? The global average is about 15,400 L/kg.

On the other hand, to produce the same amount of vegetables, only 322 L are needed, for cereals 1,644 L/kg and for milk 1,020 L/kg. With that in mind, do you feel you really know your own water consumption? Would you like to find out? In this link, you can calculate your water footprint.

Here we come to the second important concept: water footprint. A water footprint reveals water consumption patterns, from individual to national level, communicating its expenditure in the manufacturing and production of goods. In addition, it reports the amount of water contaminated during those processes.

When a country is exporting some product (cereals, vegetables, oil, ores, clothes, technology and so on), it is also exporting virtual water needed to produce that product.

If we take a look at a list of highest water footprint by country, the United Arab Emirates leads the way, followed by the U.S. and Canada. Brazil appears at number 6.

It is important to point out that nowadays the largest share of water is used in agriculture and industry, whilst direct uses (such as drinking, cooking, bathing, cleaning and so on) are responsible for only a small amount. On this website, you can find many more interesting statistics about virtual water.

Another important concept is the international virtual water trade flow. When a country is exporting some product (cereals, vegetables, oil, ores, clothes, technology and so on), it is also exporting virtual water needed to produce that product.

Big virtual water exporters are most of the Americas, Asia, Australia, and Central Africa while big importers are in Europe, Japan, North and South Africa, the Middle East, Mexico, and Indonesia.

One problem related to this trade happens because the indirect effects of water exploitation are externalized to other countries. Moreover, consumers are generally not aware and do not pay for the water problems in the overseas countries where their goods are being produced.

So, how can we take action, at an individual level, to reduce our water consumption and, at the same time, tackle climate change?

 First of all, we need to think outside the box. Reducing water consumption means way more than closing the tap while brushing your teeth. We need to re-think our lifestyles, diet, our choices for daily commutes and more.

A good start would be cutting off meat one day of the week (meatless Monday, for example). Instead of buying new clothes every year, look for some in second-hand shops, flea markets or swap with friends. Choose public transportation or bikes over private cars. When you need to shop anything, always check for local products instead of imported ones. Overall, always be a conscious citizen!

**This article expresses the personal opinions of the author (Bárbara Zambelli). These opinions may not reflect an official policy position of Geology for Global Development. **

Are we ready for water stress? The potential locations for undiscovered water sources. Investment in earthquake resilience in Tokyo and China. That and more in Jesse Zondervan’s June 2019 #GfGDpicks #SciComm

Are we ready for water stress? The potential locations for undiscovered water sources. Investment in earthquake resilience in Tokyo and China. That and more in Jesse Zondervan’s June 2019 #GfGDpicks #SciComm

Each month, Jesse Zondervan picks his favourite posts from geoscience and development blogs/news which cover the geology for global development interest. Here’s a round-up of Jesse’s selections for the last month:

As temperatures in Europe surge, one may not find it difficult to imagine water will be in demand. However, nearly one-fifth of the world’s population lives in a stressed water basin. A study published in Nature Sustainability points towards the inflexibility of our water demands. To ensure resilience to climate-change driven droughts, we better start looking for opportunities to save or build elsewhere or look for other sources.

On a positive note, this month such a new source was found off the coast of the US Northeast. Mapping of the ocean floor with electromagnetic waves revealed aquifer of fresh water underneath the salty ocean, starting at 180 m beneath the seafloor, extending 50 miles to the edge of the continental shelf. Similar deep offshore aquifers might be waiting to be found elsewhere in the world.

Tokyo and Sichuan – Earthquake resilience in Asia

This week The Guardian explores Tokyo, naming it the world’s riskiest city and one of its most resilient. The scale of the city, its risks and its efforts to build resilience are evident in the way Tokyo deals with the prediction of day X. Experts estimate a 70% chance of a magnitude 7 hitting Tokyo before 2050. With the added pressure of the 2020 Olympics Tokyo is preparing evacuation plans, and decided to cut the number of spectators for the sailing event to be better able to deal with the tsunami risk.

Over in China, a magnitude 6 earthquake struck Sichuan this month. Professor Wei Shengji considers whether human activities might have increased seismic activity, a topic also discussed in South Korea’s Pohang where there seems to be no doubt a geothermal energy project is to blame. The impact of disaster risk reduction efforts is unmistakable in the case of Sichuan, where forward thinking and the installment of an earthquake early warning system saved hundreds.

More this month, how citizen scientists can help predict and prepare for disasters,  how airlines decide whether to fly near volcanoes and the challenge of dealing with the risk of tailings dam failures in the mining industry

 

Sustainability

Combination of water scarcity and inflexible demand puts world’s river basins at risk at UCI news

Scientists Map Huge Undersea Fresh-Water Aquifer Off U.S. Northeast by Kevin Krajick at State of the Planet

Tokyo

‘This is not a “what if” story’: Tokyo braces for the earthquake of a century by Daniel Hurst at The Guardian

Tokyo 2020 organisers cut crowds at sailing events over tsunami risk by Justin McCurry at The Guardian

Sichuan

Earthquake Early Warning System Saves Hundreds in Sichuan by Kristen Wang at The Nanjinger

Commentary: Is Sichuan more prone to earthquakes? By Wei Shengji at Cnannel News Asia

Climate Change Adaptation

Mountain-Dwellers Adapt to Melting Glaciers Without Necessarily Caring About Climate Change by Sarah Fecht at State of the Planet

Stanford-led study investigates how much climate change affects the risk of armed conflict by Devon Ryan at Stanford News

How Climate Change Impacts the Economy by Renee Cho at State of the Planet

Past climate change: A warning for the future? At ScienceDaily

Disaster Risk

How Qantas and other airlines decide whether to fly near volcanoes by Heather Handley and Christina Magill at The Conversation

Boston Built a New Waterfront Just in Time for the Apocalypse by Prashant Gopal and Brian K Sullivan

Risk and the mining industry after the Brumadinho tailings dam failure by Cate Lamb at global environmental disclosure charity CDP

Five ways in which disasters worsen air pollution at UN Environment

Citizen Scientists Can Help Predict and Prepare for Disasters by Jackie Ratner at State of the Planet

Future tsunamis possible in the Red Sea’s Gulf of Elat-Aqaba at ScienceDaily

Lessons from Pohang: Solving geothermal energy’s earthquake problem at ScienceDaily

External Opportunities

The APRU Multi-Hazards Program in collaboration with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is calling for research papers and case studies of “Non-Events” to share global success and investment in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)

 

Check back next month for more picks!

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