Geology for Global Development

Geology for Global Development

Guest Blog (GfGD Liverpool): Reflections on the GfGD Annual Conference 2016

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GfGD were delighted to support Clare Spink and Taryn Freeman (University of Liverpool) to attend the recent GfGD Annual Conference. As the new leaders of the GfGD Liverpool University Group they were eager to learn more about GfGD and take that back to Liverpool. On our guest blog today, they share some of those reflections…

As we only recently took over organisation of GfGD Liverpool, it was enlightening to attend the GfGD Annual Conference 2016. We were able to network with more established university groups and get involved in existing projects, such as the GfGD Bristol Myanmar core logging project.

We both found the layout of the day enabled us to learn about GfGD’s goals and aspirations and to personally engage with other members who have different insights into how the Sustainable Development Goals can be achieved. By working in small groups, we were able to see how geologists can apply themselves to world development issues, such as enabling access to clean water and earthquake education, and how NGOs and independent projects deal with the difficulties that working within other cultures presents.

Attending the conference has taught us that in regards to addressing conflicts of opinion and methods within different cultures, it is necessary to adopt a bottom up approach to prevent the waste of time and resources focusing on parties that are less effected by the issues involved. We also learnt the benefits of collaboration with other disciplines outside of geology, and we are attending projects being held by the Geography and Planning Department that aim to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals set by the UN.

We are excited to focus our outreach here in Liverpool on next year’s theme of Risk, encouraging our peers to think about how risk can be identified and mitigated against to minimise suffering in areas vulnerable to geological hazards.

We are looking forward to attending the conference next year, and encourage budding geologists to “use our knowledge of the Earth to fight poverty”.

Editor’s note: You can find a range of resources from our conference on the GfGD website.

Mapping the Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand

Jscreen-shot-2016-11-30-at-17-08-09ack Williams is a PhD Student at the University of Otago, New Zealand, where he is studying the Alpine Fault. Jack was part of a team of experts that went into the field immediately following the Kaikoura earthquake to map the surface ruptures. Here he explains what they were up to and shares some photos of the damage.

The Mw 7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake was an incredibly complex event involving several faults; and to unravel its movement we need accurate maps of the surface ruptures that slipped during the earthquake. A team from the University of Otago comprising myself, Mark Stirling, Kat Sauer and David Barrell (GNS Science) spent the past week mapping the Hundalee Fault, where helicopter reconnaissance flights had tipped us off about surface ruptures. This fault lies close to the epicentre of the Kaikoura event, but to the south of the Kekerengu Fault, across which ~10 m displacement has been widely reported.

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In this photo of State Highway 1 (SH1), tensional cracks formed around the scarp from gravitational deformation induced by ground shaking in the earthquake

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‘Crevasses’ in road

The observations that needed to be made included: measuring displacement across the fault, constraining the length of surface rupture along-strike of the Hundalee Fault, and whether we could identify previous events along the sections that ruptured on the 14th of November. ‘Surface rupture’ refers to places where the earthquake rupture broke through to the surface and caused offset across recognisable markers such as roads and fence posts.

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Here the offset was a combination of uplift with the far side of the road uplifted 1 m, and dextral, meaning that the far side of the road moved horizontally to the right (as can be seen in the centre road markings). This type of movement with two components, is referred to as ‘oblique-slip’ and has been recognised across the Kaikoura Earthquake

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Surface rupture crossing the Te Moto Moto Stream. These rapids likely weren’t here a few weeks ago!

Mark has been busy accurately mapping the fault trace using a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS, whilst Kat and myself have been getting to grips with the department Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, i.e. a drone) to capture birds-eye views and videos of the surface rupture. By taking overlapping photos, we hope to generate 3D photogrammetry models of the ruptures. We have also seen bedrock exposures of the Hundalee Fault across a creek that was uplifted ~1 m during the earthquake, with exceptional examples of gouges and cataclasites, including some cataclasite strands that did not appear to slip in this event.

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A drone’s eye view of the surface rupture

These results will feed into the larger scale picture that is beginning to emerge from this earthquake, and will no doubt keep us busy for many years ahead. For example, why in some locations do we observe sinistral offset on a fault that predominantly has dextral offset, and, what is controlling the segmentation and jumps in the ruptures we have identified? From a personal point of view, it has been an eye opening experience into a side of earthquake geology I have never dealt with before, and also the importance of the science community engaging with those who have been affected with this event.

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Landslide covers the rail tracks that run along the east coast of the South Island.

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A bold warning from a local resident affected by the earthquake.

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