Geology for Global Development

Geology for Global Development

Introducing Our New Authors (2) – Heather Britton

Exploring Zhangjiajie National Park, Hunan province, China

We’ve been introducing you to a couple of new faces on the GfGD blog, bringing fresh ideas and perspectives on topics relating to geoscience and sustainable development. We’re delighted to have their input, and look forward to their posts. Today we interview Heather Britton – a recent graduate of the University of Cambridge (UK). 

Tell us a bit about yourself.

I’ve recently graduated with a Master’s in Earth Sciences and have just returned from a summer of travelling around China. Like many graduating geoscientists, I’d like to do work that has a positive impact on the world and GfGD has helped to show me how I might be able to do that. I am looking forward to getting more involved with the charity through these blog posts and hope not only to enlighten others, but to learn myself about the interface between geoscience and international development.

I love spending time outdoors – I enjoy hiking and play rugby regularly. I also travel as much as I can; I have been accused by family of only studying Earth Sciences for the travel opportunities it brings, but in truth this is just one of the many perks of studying this versatile subject.

How did you become involved with GfGD?

I attended the Geology for Global Development annual conference last year, and was really inspired by the talks, poster session and discussions held there. If anyone is hesitant as to whether or they not they should attend, I highly recommend it [editor: details of 2017 event can be found here!]. The conference demonstrated to me that it was not only possible to have an ethical career using my degree in Earth Sciences but that it is crucial for the geosciences to be considered when undertaking development projects. From there I took a greater interest in international development and the involvement that the geosciences could have. I wanted to get more involved in the work of GfGD, so when I saw their call for volunteers I was quick to sign up and here I am.

What did you do in your Master’s?

In my final year I specialised in climate science, palaeontology and some petrology, although I find the whole spectrum of Earth Sciences interesting and you can expect my posts to cover a wide range of geoscience fields.

My research project was palaeontology based and I confess not particularly development related! The aim of the project was to calculate the lifespan of ammonites from the growth lines on their aptychi (calcitic plates thought to either be the lower jaw structure or opercula of certain species of ammonite). On top of this I looked into the palaeobiology and palaeoecology of ammonites, using oxygen isotopes to estimate the temperature of the water in which these organisms once lived. I enjoyed the research and am considering doing a PhD in the future.

What can we expect your blogs to cover?

I hope to cover a wide range of topics so that I can appeal to the interests of as many people as possible. I am also looking forward to summarising papers covering the geosciences and international development and connecting these with the UN Sustainable Development goals which underpin so much of the work that GfGD does.

An example of an issue I have been reading about recently is sustainable coral reef management and how developing communities can benefit from the sustainable use of the resources that these environments have to offer, for example through tourism. Regional co-operations are popping up in highly affected areas working to protect reef environments but there is still a lot of work to be done to preserve these unique and hugely biodiverse environments and make local people aware of what does and does not damage these sensitive ecosystems. I also have an interest in how best to make vulnerable communities more resilient to disasters, be they earthquakes, tsunamis or hurricanes like those that have been in the headlines these past few weeks.

Plans for the future?

My dream job would be using my knowledge of geoscience in an ethical way to make a positive difference to the world, whilst involving a lot of travel. For now, however, I am more than happy to invest time in writing blogs for this fantastic charity – it is certainly a step in the right direction.

**This article expresses the personal opinions of the author (Heather Britton). These opinions may not reflect an official policy position of Geology for Global Development. **

Introducing Our New Authors (1) – Robert Emberson

Over the next few weeks we’d like to introduce you to some new faces on the GfGD blog, bringing fresh ideas and perspectives on topics relating to geoscience and sustainable development. We’re delighted to have their input, and look forward to their posts. Today we interview Robert Emberson – based in Victoria, Canada. 

Hi there! Who are you?

I’m Robert Emberson, and I’m delighted to be volunteering for GfGD. I’m looking forward to blogging about a range of topics; I see earth science at the intersection with society and social goals to be among the most challenging and interesting topics to communicate, to both scientists and the wider public.

I’m currently working as a science writer, based in Victoria, Canada. Previously I worked as an associate editor at Nature Geoscience, and before that I completed a PhD in Geomorphology at the University of Potsdam in Germany.

How did you become interested in the work of GfGD?

Some of my friends from undergraduate study were involved in the project for many years, so I have been aware of what GfGD does for some time. I’ll be honest, though – 5 or so years ago, when I started my PhD, my attention was taken up by topics that were less relevant to development and society.

Over the course of my doctoral work, though, that attitude changed. I studied the effect of bedrock landslides on chemical weathering in mountain belts, and in doing so I was fortunate to conduct fieldwork in some rapidly eroding mountain belts. It’s impossible to visit places like Nepal and Taiwan and study the landslides there without coming away with some sense of how much risk the people living under unstable hillslopes must undertake in their daily lives. Landslide hazard is just one example of an earth science problem that has very real implications for people in developing regions, and I now feel strongly that it’s imperative as scientists not to ignore these implications.
So in a roundabout way this led me to GfGD; using earth science knowledge to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals aligns well with my own interests, and I’m delighted to have this opportunity to contribute.

What role do you think science communication has in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals?

When I worked at Nature Geoscience, one of the concepts I used on a regular basis is that it should be possible for a communicator of science to be able to describe any topic, to any audience, in (almost) any number of words. The trick, of course, is to make it engaging for your audience. It seems clear to me that the SDGs are relevant to everyone, in most cases directly. Effective science communication can explain the scientific basis for this relevance (e.g. look at the links between food security and climate change, and how that affects the supply chain for the meal you’re having for dinner tonight) in a way that makes it interesting and engaging to a wide audience.

An engaged audience is one that is more likely to take action; we should use the scientific research as a powerful ally to persuade folks of the benefit of attaining the SDGs. This goes both ways, too; effective communication of the links between geoscience and SDGs should encourage a greater proportion of scientists to think about the implications of their own work for sustainability.

What topics are you most excited about at the moment?

I’ve been reading extensively lately about ground-source heating (where the earth is used as a heat source or sink for a central heating or cooling system) in the context of the changing climate. Over the next century, really dangerous temperatures could become the norm in some parts of the world, so access to air conditioning could be a matter of life and death. Using the shallow subsurface as a heat sink seems a pretty basic geological concept, but it doesn’t seem to be widely discussed; but increasing the efficiency of cooling might help alleviate the potential inequality of access to air conditioning.

I’m also interested in the long-lived effects of disasters on sustainability. Working on landslides has given me a chance to study risk and hazard ‘in between’ catastrophes. The stability of a hillslope can be changed for years after an earthquake, for example, and this changes the risk of a landslide for many years afterwards. We often imagine the impact of a disaster to be immediate, but we also often expect things should settle back to normal later on. But what if the disaster changes what normal means (i.e. the boundary conditions)? This could really important for agriculture or soil loss, or groundwater systems. This certainly seems like a place where geosciences could help inform policy.

What will you blog about?

Hopefully, all sorts of things! Images and human stories are a fantastic way to start discussions about science, and are something I’d like to work on. I’d like to look at deep-dives into more niche but nevertheless important topics; the kind of subjects and research papers that don’t necessarily fit the categorisation for ‘headline news’ but have implications for sustainability and development for whole swathes of people. The ground-source heating example above is just such an idea.

Any other interests?

I’m curious about how science is conducted, and if we can improve the way we work and publish. Equality and representation in science have parallels to the SDGs, and I think it’s valuable to think about whether we can use science as a microcosm to achieve these goals more widely. I’m also an advocate for increasing trust in science through opening our work to the public – and not just at final publication stage.

When I’m not working, I spend as much time as I can outside; I’m lucky to live for now in British Columbia, where there’s great opportunities to hike, climb and trail run in the forests and mountains.

Robert Emberson can be contacted via Twitter: @RobertEmberson or via his website:

**This article expresses the personal opinions of the author (Robert Emberson). These opinions may not reflect an official policy position of Geology for Global Development. **

Guest Blog: Geoscience’s Role In Addressing Fluorosis In Tanzania

Megan Jamer is a geoscientist from Canada, and an avid cyclist and explorer. Megan is currently travelling around East Africa on bicycle, taking in some remarkable sites and observing first hand the relationship between geoscience and sustainable development. Megan has previously written about agroforestry, landslides, and disaster risk reduction in Rwanda. Her travels have since taken her to Tanzania, and her most recent blog explores geoscience and fluorosis…

It’s hard to ignore Janet’s ‘roasted teeth’, caused by too much fluoride. She’s from Arusha in the north but has moved to central Tanzania, saving for college by managing a small guesthouse. Fluorosis develops gradually, irreversibly damaging teeth and in extreme cases, bones. It’s also a source of stigma and embarrassment, especially when moving to a part of the country where residents have healthy teeth. When Janet offers a smile, it’s restrained.

Groundwater is essential to Tanzania’s—and Sub-Saharan Africa’s—resilience to climate change and waterborne diseases, especially for residents of rural and arid areas. Many Tanzanians already use groundwater for the majority of their daily needs, but fluoride is a major problem. By 2010 estimates, up to ten million Tanzanians were drinking water with unsafe levels of fluoride. It’s a problem that also affects new groundwater drilling programs.

Jerry cans are filled from holes dug into an empty riverbed during the dry season. Compared to these surface water sources, groundwater is more reliable and less polluted by bacteria. Photo author’s own.)

A previous article here on the GfGD blog discussed fluoride in Ethiopia and how to remove it from the water through defluoridation. These technologies are essential, but Principal Hydrogeochemist Pauline Smedley at the British Geological Survey cautions that ‘defluoridation should really be considered a last resort’.

Smedley is emphasizing the preventative work that reduces fluoride’s negative effects, work that geoscientists play an important part in. Defluoridation programs can be better-directed and safer water targeted through understanding fluoride’s distribution. This blog outlines what’s been done to that effect in Tanzania, and the work remaining.

The Risk of Fluoride

In 2008 Tanzania’s national fluoride guideline was lowered from 8 mg/L (ppm) to 4 mg/L, but remains far higher than the WHO (World Health Organization) recommended 1.5 mg/L. Drinking water in excess of the WHO guideline over a long period of time puts individuals, especially children, at risk of developing dental fluorosis. The balance between fluorosis and water scarcity has compelled the Tanzanian government to set its guidelines as it has.

High-fluoride regions in Tanzania have some of the lowest levels of ‘improved’ (safe, year-round, within a kilometer) water access in the country. These regions are generally arid, and their groundwater resources aren’t leveraged as much as they could be. The aquifers are complex, and fluoride adds further risk to drilling programs. A well is abandoned if it exceeds the national guideline.

A bridge crosses an empty riverbed in central Tanzania. Photo author’s own.

The challenge and opportunity is that within areas known to have high fluoride, there can also be safe groundwater, as its concentrations can vary significantly even within small areas. If an area is excluded from groundwater development for fear of fluoride, that decision needs to be warranted. Water security is at stake.

Investigating Distribution

In 2002, Smedley and colleagues at the BGS began to investigate fluoride distribution in central Tanzania. Micas, apatite and fluorite seemed to be the primary mineral sources of fluoride in the water. Basement granite containing these minerals is a common rock type on Tanzania’s central plateau, and where fractured it is a significant groundwater target.

Several questions demanded further attention. The relationship between fluoride concentrations and faults was unclear, and faults are a common target for higher flow rates. Significantly, deeper groundwater is generally expected to have more fluoride than shallow or surface water, but within the study area most types of water sources contained high levels—earth dams, rivers, and dug wells included. This did not bode well for predicting distribution based on depth. Because of shifts in the UK’s foreign aid policies, the BGS didn’t investigate further. Instead, more recent understanding of central Tanzania’s fluoride distribution comes from JICA, the Japan International Cooperation Agency. They’ve undertaken to map fluoride as a risk-reduction measure for their continued groundwater development in several regions.

In 2013 JICA reported their key findings, including that ‘there isn’t a difference in fluoride concentration according to geology’, at least not locally. They suggest that fracturing connects the aquifers of different rock types so much so that lithology is insufficient for predictions on a local scale. Even if rock types were reliable enough, the lithology indicated on base maps may not end up being representative of what’s drilled into for a deep (80 meters or more) well.

JICA proposes that topography might play a significant role in fluoride distribution, for its influence on the time groundwater resides in the host rock. In local and regional topographic lows, groundwater may have more time to develop high fluoride concentrations from evaporation and prolonged interactions between water and rock.

Acting On Distribution Studies

Understanding these controls is important, but doesn’t give enough resolution to help choose drilling locations. To address this, an important part of JICA’s strategy is having an accurate database of fluoride measurements, with corresponding information on depth, water source type and the concentrations of other elements affecting water quality. The database is used to make groundwater-prospecting maps that show how faults and existing well performance are spatially related to fluoride concentrations, measured or expected. One of these maps is shown below, guiding drilling decisions in Singida Region, central Tanzania.

Groundwater prospecting map with fluoride risk areas for JICA’s operations in Singida Region, central Tanzania. From a 2013 JICA report (click on image to open the report).

North of the central plateau, near to Tanzania’s border with Kenya, fluorosis is also a significant problem. This region lies along an arm of the East African Rift Valley, an active continental rift. The granites common to the central plateau give way to the North’s volcanic successions, intrusions and ashes rich in fluorine-bearing minerals. Groundwater in contact with these rock types can acquire very high fluoride concentrations. Other water sources become enriched in fluoride through input from geothermal fluids, or proximity to alkaline (soda) lakes.

A probability map of Africa showing the likelihood of excessive fluoride in groundwater. In blue are the areas affected by the East African Rift Valley. Tanzania is outlined in purple. Source: Click on image to show the 2004 report that this is adapted from.

In spite of these varied fluoride sources, safe groundwater also exists in northern Tanzania and throughout the rift valley. Recently a team of researchers prospected for a safer aquifer, employing studies of lithology, the type of water coming from springs and groundwater, aquifer flow patterns, fault and fracture networks and the potential for an aquifer to flow, as interpreted from geophysical surveys.

This prospecting led to the drilling of a groundwater well to serve a community with poor water security. The well exceeded the WHO guideline for fluoride but was within the national guideline and compared to other sources in the area, was a safer water point.  Learning from these results is one of the goals of FLOWERED, a research consortium focused on defluoridation in the context of climate change, working in different locations throughout the East African Rift Valley.

The FLOWERED consortium recently held their first international field trip and workshop in northern Tanzania. Photo taken from their website.

FLOWERED aims to better understand fluoride’s distribution while also implementing defluoridation technologies. This type of coordination is important, because focusing solely on defluoridation limits its effectiveness.

The Limits of Defluoridation

Tanzania currently focuses on bone char defluoridation: animal bones are fired in a kiln and ground to a powder, their calcium absorbing fluoride from water. There are bone char units installed throughout the country, customized to the needs of schools, households and communities.

An effective defluoridation program plans for the population, expected water use, cost, and availability of materials. The programs require caretakers within the community and regular testing to ensure that the process is still removing enough fluoride. With the bone char method, the amount of materials required depends on fluoride concentrations, which can change over time. These are significant obstacles, and currently defluoridation efforts fall far short of what is needed for Tanzanians.

A proactive defluoridation strategy identifies where the problematic groundwater areas are, and why. This is an essential link between distribution and mitigation. ‘Understanding distribution better plays a key role in identifying priority areas for mitigation,’ says Smedley.

In some areas, safe water is simply unavailable and defluoridation is the only option. However, other areas could be prioritized for safe-water prospecting, if they are identified by distribution studies and monitoring to be at risk for extremely high fluoride concentrations, similar to the process followed by the researchers in northern Tanzania.

Any alternative water sources found reduce the burden on defluoridation programs. Even an aquifer with relatively lower fluoride concentrations is beneficial; the lesser the concentrations, the fewer materials needed to make the water safe.

Communication is Key

In Tanzania water resources are managed by a wide range of stakeholders, including community members, government officials, the WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) sector, donors and NGOs. Communication among these groups is key to addressing fluoride and other water-quality issues effectively.

Existing knowledge needs to be shared among these groups. On this front there are several resources for those with computer and Internet access, including the Africa Groundwater Atlas and these water quality factsheets for Tanzania and other countries. Tanzania’s Water Point Mapping initiative has resulted in a searchable map that can be explored here, and efforts to make a National Fluoride Database are ongoing.

Rural communities have a different reality, with neither electricity nor literacy available to all residents. Here, in-person education becomes essential, as there is a lack of awareness about fluoride and fluorosis that persists today. Fluorosis isn’t life threatening, unlike diarrhoea and other water-borne illnesses, so a community with limited resources may choose to focus on more pressing water-quality issues. Nonetheless, residents need to be equipped with information to make informed decisions.

A public water point in central Tanzania. What might the community know about its quality? Photo author’s own.

Communication between different groups is also essential for gathering new data through research. Ongoing projects seem to be recognizing this need for collaboration. In addition to FLOWERED’s multi-faceted approach, JICA’s operations identify fluoride distribution is a key problem to continue studying, and recommend that defluoridation programs only be pursued where alternative safe water isn’t available.

Water sources acquire dangerously high fluoride concentrations because of a particular set of environmental conditions, but fluorosis is an interdisciplinary issue at the intersection of science, public health, culture and water planning. For geoscientists working on this issue, active collaboration with other groups is essential to addressing fluorosis while also improving groundwater access for communities.


Geoscience students out there: What do you learn about the connection between fluoride and geoscience in university? 

In researching this topic I spoke with WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) professionals, whose work in the East African Rift Valley includes water quality issues. If there are WASH professionals reading this: What geoscience information do you need to do your job well? How might geoscientists and the WASH sector better collaborate on new research?

GfGD 5th Annual Conference: Cities, Geoscience, and Sustainable Development

Registration for the 5th GfGD Annual Conference is now open! Aimed at geoscientists at all stages of their career, the theme this year is “Cities: Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainable Development”. Urbanisation is a development mega-trend, associated with both major challenges but also significant opportunities for delivering the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals.

“More than half of the world’s population now live in urban areas. By 2050, that figure will have risen to 6.5 billion people – two-thirds of all humanity. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we build and manage our urban spaces.” (United Nations Development Programme – UNDP)

This conference will explore themes such as the sustainable resourcing of cities and resilient cities, with a particular focus on the Global South. We’ll be releasing a programme and announcing speaker details later this summer.

When: Friday 3 November
Where: Geological Society of London

Get your ticket here >>


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