GeoTalk: The anomaly in the Earth’s magnetic field which has geophysicists abuzz

GeoTalk: The anomaly in the Earth’s magnetic field which has geophysicists abuzz

Geotalk is a regular feature highlighting early career researchers and their work. In this interview we speak to Jay Shah, a PhD student at Imperial College London, who is investigating the South Atlantic Anomaly, a patch over the South Atlantic where the Earth’s magnetic field is weaker than elsewhere on the globe. He presented some of his recent findings at the 2017 General Assembly.

First, could you introduce yourself and tell us a little more about your career path so far?

I’m currently coming to the end of my PhD at Imperial College London. For my PhD, I’ve been working with the Natural Magnetism Group at Imperial and the Meteorites group at the Natural History Museum, London to study the origin of magnetism in meteorites, and how meteoritic magnetism can help us understand early Solar System conditions and formation processes.

Before my PhD I studied geology and geophysics, also at Imperial, which is when I studied the rocks that I spoke about at the 2017 EGU General Assembly.

What attracted you to the Earth’s magnetic field?

Jay operates the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer at the lab at Imperial. Credit: Christopher Dean/Jay Shah

My initial interest in magnetism, the ‘initial spark’ if you like, was during my undergraduate, when the topic was introduced in standard courses during my degree.

The field seemed quite magical: palaeomagnetists [scientists who study the Earth’s magnetic field history] are often known as palaeomagicians. But it’s through rigorous application of physics to geology that palaeomagicians can look back at the history of the Earth’s magnetic field recorded by rocks around the world. I was attracted to the important role palaeomagnetism has played in major geological discoveries such as plate tectonics and sea-floor spreading.

Then, during my undergraduate I had the opportunity to do some research alongside my degree, via the ‘Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme’ at Imperial. It was certainly one of the bonuses of studying at a world-class research university where professors are always looking for keen students to help move projects forward.

I was involved in a project which focused on glacial tillites [a type of rock formed from glacial deposits] from Greenland to look into inclination shallowing; which is a feature of the way magnetism is recorded in rocks that can lead to inaccurate calculation of palaeolatitutdes [the past latitude of a place some time in the past]. Accurate interpretation of the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field recorded by rocks is essential to reconstructing the positions of continents throughout time.

This was my first taste of palaeomagnetism and opened the doors to the world of research.

So, then you moved onto a MSci where one of your study areas is Tristan da Cunha, a volcanic island in the South Atlantic. The location of the island means that you’ve dedicated some time to studying the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). So, what is it and why is it important?

The SAA is a present day feature of the magnetic field and has existed for the past 400 years, at least, based on observations. It is a region in the South Atlantic Ocean where the magnetic field is weaker than it is expected to be at that latitude.

The Earth’s magnetic field protects the planet and satellites orbiting around Earth from charged particles floating around in space, like the ones that cause aurorae. The field in the SAA is so weak that space agencies have to put special measures in place when their spacecraft orbit over the region to account for the increased exposure to radiation. The Hubble telescope, for example, doesn’t take any measurements when it passes through the SAA and the International Space Station has extra shielding added to protect the equipment and astronauts.

If you picture the Earth’s magnetic field:  it radiates from the poles towards the Earth’s equator, like butterfly wings extending out of the planet. In that model, which is what palaeomagnetic theory is based on, it is totally unexpected to have a large area of weakness.

Earth’s magnetic field connects the North Pole (orange lines) with the South Pole (blue lines) in this NASA-created image, a still capture from a 4-minute excerpt of “Dynamic Earth: Exploring Earth’s Climate Engine,” a fulldome, high-resolution movie. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

We also know that the Earth’s magnetic field reverses (flips its polarity), on average, every 450,000 years. However, it has been almost twice as long since we have had a flip, which means we are ‘overdue’ a reversal. People like to look for signs that the field will reverse soon; could it be that the SAA is a feature of an impending (in geological time!) reversal? So, it becomes important to understand the SAA in that respect too.

So, how do you approach this problem? If the SAA is something you can’t see, simply measure, how do you go about studying it?

Palaeomagnetists can look to the rock record to understand the history of the Earth magnetic field.

Volcanic rocks best capture Earth’s magnetic field because they contain high percentages of iron bearing minerals, which align themselves with the Earth’s magnetic field as the lavas cool down after being erupted. They provide a record of the direction and the strength of the magnetic field at the time they were erupted.

In particular, I’ve been studying lavas from Tristan da Cunha (a hotspot island) in the Atlantic Ocean similar in latitude to South Africa and Brazil. There are about 300 people living on the island, which is still volcanically active. The last eruption on the island was in 1961. In 2004 there was a sub-marine eruption 24 km offshore.

Jürgen Matzka (GFZ Potsdam) collected hundreds and hundreds of rock cores from Tristan da Cunha on sampling campaigns back in 2004 and 2006.

We recently established the age of the lavas we sampled as having erupted some 46 to 90 thousand years ago. Now that we know the rock ages, we can look at the Earth’s magnetic field during this time window.

Why is this time window important?

These lavas erupted are within the region of the present day SAA, so we can look to see whether any similar anomalies to the Earth’s magnetic field existed in this time window.

So, what did you do next?

When Jurgen looked at the samples, he too was trying to find something out about the SAA, but the samples reviled nothing.

Initial analyses of these rocks focused on the direction of the magnetic field recorded by the rocks. The directional data can be used to trace back past locations of the Earth’s magnetic poles.

Then, during my master’s research dissertation I had the opportunity to experiment on the rocks from Tristan da Cunha with the focus on palaeointensity [the ancient intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field recorded by the rocks]. We found that they have the same weak signature we observe today in the SAA but in this really old time window.

The rocks from Tristan da Cunha, 46 to 90 thousand years ago, recorded a weaker magnetic field strength compared to the strength of the magnetic field of the time recorded by other rocks around the world.

Some of the lavas sampled on Tristan da Cunha. Credit: Jürgen Matzka

What does this discovery tell us about the SAA?

I mentioned at the start of the interview that, as far as we thought, the anomaly didn’t extend back more than 400 years ago – it’s supposed to be a recent feature of the field. Our findings suggest that the anomaly is a persistent feature of the magnetic field. Which is important, because researchers who simulate how the Earth’s magnetic field behaved in the past don’t see the SAA in simulations of the older magnetic field.

It may be that the simulations are poorly constrained. There are far fewer studies (and samples) of the Earth’s magnetic directions and strengths from the Southern Hemisphere. This inevitably leads to a sampling bias, meaning that the computer models don’t have enough data to ‘see’ the feature in the past.

However, we are pretty certain that the SAA isn’t as young as the simulations indicate. You can also extract information about the ancient magnetic field from archaeological samples. As clay pots are fired they too have the ability to record the strength and direction of the magnetic field at the time. Data recorded in archaeological samples from southern Africa, dating back to 1250 to 1600 AD also suggest the SAA existed at the time.

Does the fact that the SAA is older than was thought mean it can’t used be to indicate a reversal?

It could still be related to a future reversal – our findings certainly don’t rule that out.

However, they may be more likely to shed some light on how reversals occur, rather than when they will occur.

It’s been suggested that the weak magnetic anomaly may be a result of the Earth’s composition and structure at the boundary between the Earth’s core and the mantle (approximately 3000 km deep, sandwiched between the core and the Earth’s outermost layer known as the crust). Below southern Africa there is something called a large low shear velocity province (LLSVP), which causes the magnetic flux to effectively ‘flow backwards’.

These reversed flux patches are the likely cause of the weak magnetic field strength observed at the surface, and could well indicate an initiating reversal. However, the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field on average at present is stronger than what we’ve seen in the past prior to field reversals.

The important thing is the lack of data in the southern hemisphere. Sampling bias is pervasive throughout science, and it’s been seen here to limit our understanding of past field behaviour. We need more data from around the world to be able to understand past field behaviour and to constrain models as well as possible.

Sampling bias is pervasive throughout science, and it’s been seen here to limit our understanding of past field behaviour. This image highlights the problem (black dots = a sampling location). Modified from an image in the supporting materials of Shah, J., et al. 2016. Credit: Jay Shah.

You are coming towards the end of your PhD – what’s next?

So I moved far away from Tristan da Cunha for my PhD and have been looking at the magnetism recorded by meteorites originating from the early Solar System. I’d certainly like to pursue further research opportunities working with skills I’ve gained during my PhD. I want to continue working in the magical world of magnetism, that’s for sure! But who knows?

Something you said at the start of the interview struck me and is a light-hearted way to round-off our chat. You said that palaeomagnetism are often referred to as ‘paleaomagicians’ by others in the Earth sciences, why is that so?

Over the history of the geosciences, palaeomagntists have contributed to shedding light on big discoveries using data that not very many people work with. It’s not a big field within the geosciences, so it’s shrouded in a bit of mystery. Plus, it’s a bit of a departure from traditional geology, as it draws so heavily from physics. And finally, it’s not as well established as some of the other subdisciplines within geology and geophysics, it’s a pretty young science.  At least, that’s why I think so, anyway!

Interview by Laura Roberts Artal, EGU Communications Officer

References and further reading

Shah, J., Koppers, A.A., Leitner, M., Leonhardt, R., Muxworthy, A.R., Heunemann, C., Bachtadse, V., Ashley, J.A. and Matzka, J.: Palaeomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South AtlanticEarth and Planetary Science Letters441, pp.113-124, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.02.039, 2016.

Shah, J., Koppers, A.A., Leitner, M., Leonhardt, R., Muxworthy, A.R., Heunemann, C., Bachtadse, V., Ashley, J.A. and Matzka, J.: Paleomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 19, EGU2017-7555-3, 2017, EGU General Assembly 2017.

Mexico earthquakes: What we know so far

Mexico earthquakes: What we know so far

On Friday 8 September 2017 at 04:49 am UTC, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake hit off the coast of Mexico, 87 km SW of Pijijiapan. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the epicentre was at 15.07 N, 93.72 W at a depth of about 69.7 km. Yesterday, another strong (magnitude 7.1) earthquake hit central Mexico, 55 km SSW of the city of Puebla and 120 km south of Mexico City.

Despite the lower magnitude, yesterday’s earthquake, which struck at a depth of 51 km, has caused widespread destruction. At the time of writing, official estimates put the death toll at 217 (according to Mexico’s National Coordinator for Civil Protection, Luis Felipe Puente), with shaking causing damage to and the collapse of hundreds of buildings in Mexico City and surrounding areas.

“The M 7.1 earthquake was much closer to Mexico City, a city build on a dried lake bed; this caused presumably (needs to be confirmed by data) much higher shaking in the densely populated capital then the larger, but farther M 8.1 event,” explains Martin Mai, President of the EGU’s Seismology Division.

Based on current information, the U.S. Geological Survey estimates that significant causalities are likely in the region. Given the mix of vulnerable and earthquake resistant structures, the economic loss is also expected to be high. For more information visit impact pages of the event on the USGS website.

It is too early to say whether a link exists between the two September earthquakes.

“It could be that stress changes caused by the M 8.1 event brought the fault (system) on which the M 7.1 earthquake happened closer to failure; but this requires detailed quantitative analysis,” clarifies Mai.

Editor’s note: This post will be update as more information about the earthquake becomes available.

Further reading and resources:

U.S. Geological Survey overview of 19.09.2017 M 7.1 earthquake (includes interactive, shake and regional information maps)

U.S. Geological Survey overview of 08/09.2017 M 8.1 earthquake (includes interactive, shake and regional information maps, as well as finite fault results and moment tensor information)

Temblor blog post on M 7.1 earthquake

Temblor blog post on M 8.1 earthquake

Did Mexico dodge a bullet in last week’s M=8.1 earthquake? (Temblor blog post on dynamics of 8th September quake)

European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre information about yesterday’s earthquake

SSN (Mexico) page about yesterday’s earthquake (in Spanish)

GFZ GEOFON Global Seismic Network event page for yesterday’s earthquake

Imaggeo on Mondays: What happens to mines when they become redundant?

Imaggeo on Mondays: What happens to mines when they become redundant?

When the minerals run out, or it is no longer profitable to extract the resources, mines shut down. Prior to issuing a permit for the exploitation of a resource, most regulators require assurance that once the mine closes it, or the activities carried out at the site, will not present a risk to human health or the environment.

Ongoing monitoring of a mine once it is decommissioned is required to ensure this is the case.

“The goal of my work is to study the environmental impact of mining waste in the north-east part of Algeria,” explains Issaad Mouloud, author of today’s featured image.

Algeria has a long history of mining. Since the antiquity and the time of the Berbers, many minerals and ores deposits were exploited. The northeast was the most productive region in the country. The geology of the study area is composed of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, sandstone and limestone.

Kef Oum Theboul mining district is located on the Eastern cost of Algeria, 4 km west of the Tunisian border. It is located 15 km from the town of El Kala. The Kef Oum Theboul site covers an area of 26.6 km2 and which contains copper lead and zinc ore

Discovered in 1845, the Kef Oum Teboul ore deposits were mined from 1849 to the 1970s. The Messida ore plant, pictured above and located not far from the Kef Oum Teboul deposit, is one of Issaad’s study sites.

The ore plant, situated in the Algerian Mediterranean coast, on Messida beach (located 6km from Kef Oum Teboul) processed copper, lead and zinc mineralizations.  Processing at the plant started in 1899.  It had three water jacket furnaces, with a capacity of 50 tons of ore per 24 hours. The obtained matte contained 20-22% copper, 200 grams of silver and 11-12 grams of gold per ton.

“The plant is now totally destroyed but mining waste, mainly sulphur ore and slag, is still stored in the Messida area,” explains Issaad, who goes on to say “the main pollution factor which I study is the acid mine drainage and heavy metals.”


Abandoned sulphurous ore and slag stored in the ruins of the ore processing plant of Messida. Credit: Issaad Mouloud

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at

Mapping Ancient Oceans

Mapping Ancient Oceans

This guest post is by Dr Grace Shephard, a postdoctoral researcher in tectonics and geodynamics at the Centre of Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED) at the University of Oslo, Norway. This blog entry describes the latest findings of a study that maps deep remnants of past oceans. Her open access study, in collaboration with colleagues at CEED and the University of Oxford, was published this week in the Nature Journal: Scientific Reports. This post is modified from a version that first appeared on the CEED Blog.

Quick summary:

There are several ways of imaging the insides of the Earth by using information from earthquake data. When these different images are viewed at the same time, a new type of map allows geoscientists to identify the most robust features. These deep structures are likely the remains of extinct oceans, known as slabs, that were destroyed hundreds of millions of years ago. The maps are computed at different depths inside the Earth and the resulting slabs can be resurrected back to the surface. Along with a freely available paper and website, the analysis yields new insights into the structure and evolution of our planet in deep time and space.

Earth in constant motion

The surface of the Earth is in constant motion and this is particularly true of the rocks found under the oceans. The crust – the outermost layer of the planet – is continually being formed in the middle of oceans, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In other places, older crust is being destroyed, such as where the Pacific Ocean is moving under Japan. A third type of locality sees the crust shifted along laterally, such as the San Andreas Fault in San Francisco. These three types of locations are often referred to as plate boundaries, and they connect up to divide the Earth’s surface into tectonic plates of different sizes and motions.

Where plates plunge into the mantle are termed subduction zones (red lines Figure 1, below). The configuration of these subduction zones has changed throughout geological time. Indeed, much of the ocean seafloor (blue area in Figure 1) that existed when the dinosaurs roamed the Earth has long since been lost into the Earth’s mantle and are now known as slabs. The mantle is the domain beneath the outer shell of our planet and extends to around 2800 km depth, to the boundary with the core.

The age and fabric of the seafloor contains some of the most important constraints in understanding the past configuration of Earth. However, the constant recycling of oceans means that the Earth’s surface as it is today can only tell us so much about the deep geological past – the innards of our planet hold much of this information, and we need to access, visualize, and disseminate it.

Figure 1. A reconstruction of the Earth’s surface from 200 Million years ago to present day in jumps of 10 Million years. Red lines show the location of subduction zones, other plate boundaries in black, plate velocities are also shown. Continents are reconstructed with the present-day topography for reference. Based on the model of Matthews et al. (2016; Global and Planetary Change). Credit: G Shephard (CEED/UiO) using GPlates and GMT software.

Imaging the insides

Using information from earthquake data, seismologists can produce images of the Earth’s interior via computer models – this technique is called seismic tomography. Similar to a medical X-ray scan that looks for features within the human body, these models image the internal structure of the Earth. Thus, a given seismic tomography model is a snapshot into the present-day structure, which has been shaped by hundreds of millions to billions of years of Earth’s history.

However, there are different types of data that can be used to generate these models and different ways they can be created, each with varying degrees of resolution and sensitivity to the real Earth structure. This variability has led to dozens of tomographic models available in the scientific arena, which all have slightly different snapshots of the Earth. For example, deep under Canada and the USA is a well-known chunk of subducted ocean seafloor (see ‘slab’ label in Figure 2). A vertical slice through the mantle for three different tomography models shows that while overall the models are similar, there are some slight shifts in its location and shape.

Importantly, seismic waves pass through subducted, old, cold oceanic plates more quickly than they do through the surrounding mantle (in the same way that sound travels faster through solids than air). It follows that these subducted slabs can be ‘imaged’ seismically (usually these slab regions show up as blue in tomography models such as in Figure 2 and as shown in this video by co-author Kasra Hosseini. The red regions might represent thermally hot features like mantle plumes).

Figure 2. Vertical slices through three different seismic tomography models under North America and the Atlantic Ocean (profile running from A to B). The blue region outlined by black dashed line is related to the so-called Farallon slab. While it is imaged in all three models the finer details of the slab geometry and depth are different. Model 1 is S40RTS (Ritsema et al., 2011), 2 is UU-P07 (Amaru, 2007) and 3 is GyPSum-S (Simmons et al., 2010).

For other geoscientists to utilize this critical information, for example to work out how continents and oceans moved through time, requires a spectrum of seismic tomography models to be considered. But several limiting questions arise:

Which tomography model(s) should be used?

Are models based certain data types more likely to pick up a feature?

How many models are sufficient to say that a deep slab can be imaged robustly?

Voting maps of the deep

To facilitate solutions to these questions, a novel yet simple approach was undertaken in the study. Different tomography models were combined to generate counts, or votes, of the agreement between models – a sort of navigational guidebook to the Earth’s interior (Figure 3).

Figure 3. An interactive 360° style image for the vote map at 1000 km depth. The black and red regions highlight the most robust features (high vote count = likely to be a subducted slab of ocean) and the blue regions are the least robust areas (low vote count). Coastlines in black for reference. Image: G Shephard (CEED/UiO) using 360player ( and GMT software. More depth slices and options can be also imaged at our website.

A high vote count (black-red features in Figure 3) means that an increased number of tomography models agree that there could be a slab at that location. For the study in Scientific Reports the focus was on the oldest and deepest slabs, but the process can be undertaken for shallower and younger slabs, and for other features such as mantle plumes. The maps show the distribution of the most robust slabs at different depths – the challenge is to now try and verify the features and potentially link them to subduction zones at the surface back in time.

One way to achieve this is to assume that a subducted portion of ocean will sink vertically in the mantle, and then to apply a sinking rate to connect depth and time. This enables pictures that link the surface and deep Earth, like the cover image, to be made. A sinking rate of say, 1.2 centimeters per year, means that a feature that existed at the surface around 100 Million years ago might be found at 1200 km depth.

Many studies have started to undertake a similar exercise on both regional and global scales. However, because these vote maps are free to access, showcase a lot of different models and can be remade with a sub-selection of them, they serve as an easy resource for the community to continue this task.

Secrets in depth

A bit like dessert-time discussions about the best way to cut a cake, so too are the ways of imaging and analyzing the Earth (Figure 4). Do you slice it horizontally and see things that might correspond to the same age all over the globe? Or slice vertically from the surface to see a spectrum of ages (depths) at a given location? Or perhaps a 3-D imaging would be most insightful? Whichever choice is made for the vote maps, many interesting features are displayed.

Figure 4. Vote maps visualized using alternative imaging options on a sphere. Credit: G Shephard (CEED/UiO) using GPlates software

By comparing the changes in vote counts with depth, some intriguing results were found. An apparent increase in the amount of the slabs was found around 1000-1400 km depth. This could mean that about 130 Million years ago more oceanic basins were lost into the mantle. Or perhaps there is a specific region in the mantle that has “blocked” the slabs from sinking deeper for some period of time (for example, an increase in viscosity).

The vote maps and their associated depth-dependent changes hold implications on an interdisciplinary stage including through linking plate tectonics, mantle dynamics, and mineral physics.

Of course, the vote maps are only as good as the tomography models that they are comprised of – and by very definition, a model is just one way of representing the true Earth.

A resource for the community

Having accessed a variety of tomography models provided by different research groups or data repositories, this study was facilitated using open-source software (Generic Mapping Tools and GPlates).

An important component of reproducible science and advancing our understanding of Earth is to make datasets and workflows publicly available for further investigations.

An online toolkit to visualize seismic tomography data is being developed by the co-authors and a preliminary vote maps page is already online. Here, vote maps for a sub-selection of tomography models can be generated, including with a choice in colour scales and with overlays of plate reconstruction models. More functionality will soon be available – so watch this space!

By Grace Shephard, a postdoctoral researcher in tectonics and geodynamics at the Centre of Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED)

Contact information for more details: Grace Shephard –

Full reference to the article, freely available to the public:

Amaru, M. L. Global travel time tomography with 3-D reference models,. Geol. Ultraiectina 274, 174 (2007).

Matthews, K.J. K.T. Maloney, S. Zahirovic, S.E. Williams, M. Seton, R.D. Müller. 2016. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic. Global and Planetary Change. v146. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.10.002

Ritsema, J., Deuss, A., van Heijst, H. J. & Woodhouse, J. H. S40RTS: a degree-40 shear-velocity model for the mantle from new Rayleigh wave dispersion, teleseismic traveltime and normal-mode splitting function measurements. Geophysical Journal International 184, 1223-1236, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04884.x (2011).

Simmons, N. A., Forte, A. M., Boschi, L. & Grand, S. P. GyPSuM: A joint tomographic model of mantle density and seismic wave speeds. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 115, doi:10.1029/2010JB007631 (2010).





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