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GeoEd: EGU General Assembly and GIFT 2015

GeoEd: EGU General Assembly and GIFT 2015

The most recent issue (Winter/Spring 2015) of the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter includes a piece, by Earth Science Correspondent, Michael J. Passow, on the 2015 General Assembly and the GIFT (Geosciences Information For Teachers) Workshop. Passow gives an account of this year’s workshop, on the topic of mineral resources, and outlines the participating teacher’s experience.

Each spring, the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly brings geoscientists from all over the world to Vienna for a conference covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary and space sciences. EGU 2015, convening 12-17 April, provided a forum where scientists, especially early career researchers, could present their work and discuss their ideas with experts in all fields of geoscience. Concurrently, nearly 80 educators from around the world gathered for the 11th Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop of the EGU. They included, for the first time, your correspondent.

This year’s GIFT workshop welcomed 76 teachers from 21 different countries. GIFT 2015 centered on the theme “Mineral Resources.” Driving this selection was growing awareness that expansion of the world population from 6 to 9.6 billion in 2050 and rapid industrialization of highly populated countries, combined with an overall higher standard of living, are expected to intensify global competition for natural resources and place additional pressure on the environment, both terrestrial and marine. We recognize that mineral reserves are being depleted, and concerns are growing about access to new raw materials, especially basic and strategic minerals. Rise in the price of several essential metals, for example copper, has prompted some industrialized countries to initiate concerted activities to ensure access to strategic minerals.

Participants of the GIFT workshop at the 2015 General Assembly. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Participants of the GIFT workshop at the 2015 General Assembly. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Europe has recently begun initiatives that attempt to solve the issue. Europe depends greatly on imports for many materials needed for construction and heavy and high-tech industries. Recycling, resource efficiency, and searching for alternative materials are essential, but probably not sufficient to meet demands. There is a need to find new primary deposits. But politicians and business leaders are concerned because deposits, when identified, occur in areas difficult to access, barring modern exploration technology, and requiring huge investment costs. Exploration requires substantial capital, rare expertise, and leading edge technologies in order to secure the lowest extraction costs. GIFT 2015 matched teachers with experts of exploration, extraction, policy making in the field of future mineral resources, including the deep-sea frontier.

The EGU welcomed the teachers and started to bond them with a special guided visit to the Vienna Museum of Natural Sciences on Sunday, 12 April. They then joined all conference participants in the “Ice Breaker Party” at the Austria Center, where the scientific programs took place. Find out more information about EGU 2015 here.

Many of the participating teachers also contributed to the program through hands-on workshops, poster sessions, and other activities. Your correspondent presented in one of the hands-on workshop sessions classroom-based activities about minerals. Participants made models of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron and other molecules using raisins and toothpicks. They shared strategies to teach important minerals properties, such as cleavage and magnetism, in their countries. An anticipated highlight was distributing samples of fluorescent minerals donated by the Sterling Hill Mining Museum in Ogdensburg, NJ, and watching them glow under ultraviolet energy.

Hands-on workshops at the GIFT workshop during the 2015 conference. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Hands-on workshops at the GIFT workshop during the 2015 conference. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Many of the teachers received partial conference expenses through professional societies and other sources. When participants return to their home countries, they are expected to complete an evaluation form to assess this year’s program and provide guidance for next year’s. Each will also make presentations about their EGU experience to teaching colleagues, submit reports and photographs about how GIFT information and resources have been used, and, contribute articles about the GIFT workshop to professional publications aimed at geosciences teachers.

You can learn about past GIFT workshops through the EGU website. Beginning in 2009, EGU has created web-TV presentations, which may be freely downloaded and used in classrooms. To expand the impact and outreach of the programs, the EGU Committee on Education began in 2012 a series of GIFT Distinguished Lectures in several European countries. Leading scientists who have participated as speakers in GIFT workshops during the EGU General Assemblies are supported to provide organized educational event for high school science teachers.

Similar GIFT Workshops are offered at the annual American Geoscience Union meetings held each fall in San Francisco. These are organized by the National Earth Science Teachers Association and the AGU Education Program. Resources from the previous four AGU GIFT workshops are available online.

by Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent

This article originally appeared in the Newsletter of the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education.

For an electronic subscription to the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter please e-mail a request to JLRoeder@aol.com. You can also access the Newlsetter via the website of the American Association of Physics Teachers.

The GIFT Workshops are organised by the EGU’s Committee on Education. You can learn more about the GIFT programme and the other educational activities fostered by the Committee on the EGU website.

All you ever wanted to know about EGU publications

All you ever wanted to know about EGU publications

Did you know that, the EGU, through Copernicus Publications, publishes 17 peer-reviewed open-access journals? The journals cover a range of topics within the Earth, planetary and space sciences: with publications spanning the cryospheric sciences, soil system sciences, through to non-linear processes in geophysics, there is something for everyone. Whatever your area of research, chances are you’ll be represented within the range of EGU publications!

Better still, the EGU is a signatory of the Berlin Declaration. This means we believe that scientific literature should be publicly available and free of charge. Anyone wishing to read, download, copy, distribute, search or print research findings is able to do so without encountering any financial, legal or technical barriers. Authors of research articles are fully protected, too! They retain full copyright for their work via the Creative Commons Attribution License, which requires that full credit for any distribution of the research is given and any changes made to figures and or/data is highlighted, too.

Most EGU Publications also extend the traditional peer-review process by applying the Interactive Public Peer Review system. This means that a manuscript is subjected to two stages of review. The figure below helps to illustrate the process.

Two-stage public peer review as practised in the scientific journal Climate of the Past (CP) and its discussion forum Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD). 1. Submission; 2. Access review; 3. Technical corrections; 4. Publication as Discussion paper; 5. Comments; 6. Final response; 7.Post-discussion editor decision; 8. Revisions; 9. Peer-review completion; 10. Final revised publication.

Two-stage public peer review as practised in the scientific journal Climate of the Past (CP) and its discussion forum Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD). 1. Submission; 2. Access review; 3. Technical corrections; 4. Publication as Discussion paper; 5. Comments; 6. Final response; 7.Post-discussion editor decision; 8. Revisions; 9. Peer-review completion; 10. Final revised publication.

In the first stage, the manuscript undergoes a rapid pre-screening and is immediately published as a ‘discussion paper’, in the journal discussion forum. During the next eight weeks or so, the paper is reviewed by the referees, as well as the scientific community. Referees and other scientists can leave comments which are published alongside the paper. The referee’s comments can be anonymous, or signed, whilst the public comments are always signed. Authors can actively participate in the discussion by clarifying remarks and offering further details to those reading the discussion paper.

The second stage of review follows: if the editor is satisfied with the author’s responses to the comments, the manuscript can be accepted for publication. If the editor still has some concerns about the publication, further revisions will be carried out until a final decision is reached. If necessary, the editor may also consult referees in the same way as during the completion of a traditional peer-review process. In order to increase transparency, some journals also publish a report that documents all changes to the paper since the end of the public discussion.

The system offers advantages to the authors, referees, editors and even the reader. The publication of the ‘discussion paper’ means that research is rapidly disseminated. Added to which, the interactive peer review and discussion means that authors receive feedback directly and can participate in the discussion. The final published research undergoes a full peer-review process, in addition to comments from other scientists, assuring the quality of the research, that is published in EGU journals.

On average, it takes approximately 200 days for a manuscript to complete its journey from submission to publication. However, this time can vary from journal to journal and manuscript to manuscript. This video, produced by our publisher Copernicus, shows the review times for various EGU Journals. Not only that, the average length of time the manuscript spends at each of the stages from submission to publication is broken down, too.

Maybe next time you come to publish your research findings you’ll consider submitting your manuscript to one of the EGU journals. You can learn more about the EGU publications by following this link. To submit your manuscript, head over to the website of any of the EGU journals, and look for the author guidelines and resources for reviewers.

Some food for thought to finish off this post: Have you ever considered the global journey a manuscript goes on after it is submitted? Using an article from Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Copernicus produced a video tracking its globetrotting journey: from its birth in Norway and collaborations in eight different countries, to its editor in Switzerland and referees spanning Europe and Asia, the global impact of this manuscript is truly remarkable.

Did you know you can follow many of the EGU journals on Twitter, too? With links to useful journal information, highlight and discussion papers, the social media platform provides a quick way to keep up to speed with the journals. Please follow this link to find out which journals are on Twitter.

Do you have any questions about EGU journals that were not answered in this post? Get in touch through the comments below.

References

Pöschl, U.: Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation, Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 33, 1-16, doi:10.3389/fncom.2012.00033, 2012.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Mountains, rivers and agriculture

This week’s Imaggeo on Mondays image blends a range of geoscience disciplines. The post, by Irenen Mazoff, a researcher at Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, explores how the mountains, rivers and soils of the High Atlas in Morocco are intrinsically linked to the agriculture of the region.

High Atlas landscape. Credit: Irene Marzolff (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

High Atlas landscape. Credit: Irene Marzolff (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The image was taken in the southern slopes of the Western High Atlas, north of the city of Taroudannt. The snow of these mountains, which in April is still prevailing on the highest ranges in the background of the photo, is a significant water resource for the region. The high interannual variability of precipitation and its changing patterns associated to climate change present a serious challenge for natural environment and for the sustainable use of water as a resource in agriculture and tourism, the two major economic sectors in the area.

A characteristic open cover of Argan trees (Argania spinosa) can be seen on the lower mountain slopes in the middle distance of the photo: an endemic species with small, oil-rich fruits resembling olives that yield high-quality oil used in medicine, food and cosmetics. The species is a relic of the Tertiary (66 to 2.8 million years ago) but has been under threat from human exploitation for centuries, by excessive grazing, fire-wood cutting, charcoal making and changes to the groundwater table. The area is part of the UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve “Arganeraie” committed to the preservation and sustainable use of the trees.

The river bed in the foreground is formed by fluvial processes typical for this high-mountain region, with highly variable seasonal discharges controlled both by rainfall and snowmelt. It will in the near future drain into the Sidi Abdellah Reservoir that is currently being constructed near Tamaloukt. This reservoir will add to the 10 already existing water storage lakes in the region of Souss Massa Drâa, which is in urgent need of additional water resources: The Souss Valley to the South of the High Atlas is one of Morocco’s most intensely farmed agricultural regions, with agro-industrial production of bananas, vegetables and citrus fruit. Much of this, including 90% of Morocco’s tomato production, is exported to the European market.

By Irene Marzolff, researcher at the Institut fuer Physische Geographie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt.

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

GeoTalk: Deciphering the mysteries of the Mediterranean Sea with Katrin Schroeder

GeoTalk: Deciphering the mysteries of the Mediterranean Sea with Katrin Schroeder

Geotalk is a regular feature highlighting early career researchers and their work. Following the EGU General Assembly, we spoke to Katrin Schroeder, the winner of a 2015 Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists.

First, could you introduce yourself and tell us a little more about your career path so far

Meet Katrin!

Meet Katrin! Credit: Katrin Schroeder

I am a physical oceanographer with a background in environmental science. I did my studies at the University of Venice(Italy) and in collaboration with the Institute for Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR). I started off working on biogeochemical cycles in coastal waters and then moved to the larger scale and to the physics of ocean dynamics in the open sea, trying also to combine physical and biogeochemical oceanography. In 2006 I started to work at CNR ISMAR in La Spezia, on the shore of the Ligurian Sea, in a beautiful office with sea view, reminding me every morning how lucky I was to have my job. I finally got a permanent position at CNR ISMAR in Venice in 2011. This period was characterized by intense learning, participation to workshops, summer schools and conferences, prolonged visits at the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, writing my PhD thesis and papers, and participating in oceanographic cruises of the Mediterranean Sea, 1-2 months per year. I slowed down this rhythm recently, but just a bit, after the birth of my first son (now 3 years old), and my two twin boys (now 1 year old). I am looking forward to go back out to sea again soon.

What sparked your interest in oceanography?

At the beginning it was more or less by chance that I started to work on the Mediterranean Sea, and became a physical oceanographer, since after several applications to various marine and environmental institutes in 2004 I got my first fellowship at the Unit for Marine Research (ENEA in La Spezia). After my first oceanographic cruise, in 2005, in the Western Mediterranean Sea, I knew that that was “my” job. At that time there was no internet on research vessels and offshore the mobile phones served only to help you to wake up in time for your next shift in the middle of the night (these vessels operate 24/24 hours): you were completely in another dimension for days or weeks, without any contact with the “outside world”, working hard and in close contact with a limited number of persons. For me, that was great. What I really love in my job as a sea-going physical oceanographer is the alternation between “thinking” phases (in the office, in front of a pc) and “operating” phases (the cruise, the pre and post activities).

Much of your research focuses on the Mediterranean Sea, what makes it such an ideal candidate for oceanographic studies?

The Mediterranean has a number of valuable advantages (besides, CNR ISMAR being on its door steps). It is in many ways a miniature ocean and a natural laboratory for climatic studies: it has deep water formation varying on interannual time scales and a well-defined overturning circulation, and there are distinct surface, intermediate and deep water masses circulating between the western and the eastern basin. What makes the Mediterranean particularly useful for climate change studies is that its time scale is much shorter than for the global ocean, with a turnover time of roughly 60 years compared with more than 500 years for the global ocean. Changes can happen faster, on the time scale of a human lifetime.

During EGU 2015, you received the Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists for your work on experimental oceanography, where you have contributed original ideas on the understanding of the formation and spreading of Mediterranean deep waters. Could you tell us a bit more about your research in this area?

In the deep layers of the Western Mediterranean an almost constant trend towards higher salinity and temperature has been observed since the ‘50s. More recent observations evidenced an acceleration of this tendency. An alteration of the water mass vertical distribution, associated with an abrupt temperature and salinity increase has been observed. In particular, since March 2005 large volumes of new bottom water has formed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably this new bottom water is warmer and saltier than the old deep waters so it has become an easily recognized water mass when temperature and salinity profiles are made through the water column. Since its formation, this new bottom water has spread out into the western Mediterranean so that now it forms a bottom layer of warm salty water up to 1000 m thick throughout the western Mediterranean basin. The new bottom water has provided a natural tracer release experiment for understanding how bottom water fills the basin. The processes of deep water formation, the filling of the western Mediterranean with the new deep waters formed in the north, and the mixing between old and new deep waters are keys to understand how the Mediterranean is changing under changing climate conditions. An important open issue is how the old and new deep waters mix, on what time scale and by what processes, and in particular to quantify the role of turbulent mixing in the overall diffuse upwelling, the returning branch of the vertical thermohaline circulation.

The possible impacts these changes could have on a global scale are still an open issue.

oceans

Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (modified by Loic Houpert from Tsimplis et al., 2006): AW=Atlantic Water, LIW=Levantine Intermediate Water, WMDW=Western Mediterranean Deep Water, EMDW=Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water. Credit: Katrin Schroeder

With my team we observed the anomaly thanks to repeated oceanographic cruises in the Western Mediterranean. We started to publish about the deep water formation event in the north-western Mediterranean in 2006 (Schroeder et al., 2006, GRL). The event was extraordinary for its large volume of warmer and thermohaline properties of the deep water produced during the severe winter of 2004/2005. I have explored the causes of this event, tracing its origin back to the Eastern Mediterranean, from where increased amounts of heat and salt were imported to the Western Mediterranean and I have examined with new observations the spreading of the new water as a transient tracer through the western Mediterranean.

How does bottom water form, exactly and how is it different to other water in Mediterranean?

Bottom water forms in some specific regions worldwide, and few of them are also located in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep waters are “formed” (or we should rather say “transformed” from surface and intermediate water masses) where the air temperatures are cold and where the salinity of the surface waters are relatively high. The combinations of salinity and cold temperatures make the water denser and cause it to sink to the bottom. Its formation may occur either in the open ocean by deep convection or on the continental shelves by a process called dense shelf water cascading. In the Mediterranean both phenomena are present: in the Gulf of Lion (north-western Mediterranean Sea), in the Adriatic Sea and in the Aegean Sea. This sites maintain the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation in motion and, ventilating the deep layers, provide fresh oxygen to the deep water ecosystems. The Mediterranean also hosts a surface water mass, which comes directly from the Atlantic Ocean and circulates through the whole basin, gradually increasing its density because of the strong evaporation that takes place in the region. In the Mediterranean intermediate water masses are also formed, with processes that are similar to the bottom water formation, but in different locations and with density characteristics that do not allow these water masses to sink to the very bottom.

Earlier, you mentioned that the Mediterranean is useful for climate change studies due to having a much quicker turnover than the larger oceans. Can you describe an example of just how the study of the Mediterranean has been useful in this way?

The most important example is the in depth investigation of the process of deep water formation, which is an essential component of the global ocean conveyor belt, and sustains the present climatic state. The process happens mostly at high latitudes, but also in the north-western Mediterranean Sea on much smaller scales. Observations of the processes involved in open-ocean deep convection began with the now classical Mediterranean Ocean Convection (MEDOC) experiment in the Gulf of Lion [MEDOC Group, 1970]. With respect to high latitude sites, the Mediterranean site had the advantages of being less expensive to investigate, given an easier access with oceanographic vessels, due to its closeness to the coast and oceanographic institutes, of offering to milder winter conditions (season during which the dense water formation takes place) facilitating operations at sea. It is also very likely that studies about process related to ocean acidification and carbon sequestration as a consequence of dense water formation will be more feasible in the Mediterranean Sea.

What advice do you have for early career scientists on how achieve a good work/life balance?

Well, this is strongly dependent on the specific conditions you have in your life and it depends on your priorities: I have strong support from my family, I have the possibility to have a kindergarten close to our home with an affordable fee (this is the most important thing I must say!), and I have made the choice to let the household behind ….and I do not iron!

Finally, could you tell us a bit about your future research plans?

Staying very general, I am starting to follow a path of a higher interdisciplinary in oceanographic disciplines, trying to enforce the dialogue between us, physical oceanographers, and biological, microbiological and chemical oceanographers, as well as with climatologists and meteorologists.

References

Schroeder K., Gasparini G.P., Tangherlini M., Astraldi M.: Deep and Intermediate Water in the Western Mediterranean under the influence of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: 10.1028/2006GL02712

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