Stratigraphy, Sedimentology and Palaeontology

Imaggeo on Mondays: The road to nowhere – natural hazards in the Peloponnese

Imaggeo on Mondays: The road to nowhere – natural hazards in the Peloponnese

The Gulf of Corinth, in southern Greece, separates the Peloponnese peninsula from the continental mainland. The structural geology of the region is complex, largely defined by the subduction of the African Plate below the Eurasian Plate (a little to the south).

The Gulf itself is an active extensional marine basin, i.e., one that is pulling open and where sediments accumulate. Sedimentary basins result from the thinning, and therefore sinking, of the underlying crust (though other factors can also come into play). The rifting in the region is relatively new, dating back some five million years, and results in rare but dangerous earthquakes.

The active tectonics result in a plethora of other natural hazards, not only earthquakes.  Minor and major faults crisscross the area and have the potential to trigger landslides, posing a threat to lives and infrastructure. A road, swept away in a landslide, in the northern Peloponnese (along the southern margin of the Corinth rift) is a clear example of the hazard.

“This photo was taken in the Valimi fault block [editor’s note: a section of bedrock bound on either side by faults], east of the Krathis valley. West of this valley, the landscape is characterised by  narrow and deep gorges as the present day rivers cut into the well-consolidated conglomerates deposited during the active extension of the basin,” explains Romain Hemelsdaël, author of this week’s imaggeo on Mondays photograph.

Characteristically, sediments deposited in actively extensional rifts where the Earth’s crust and lithosphere are being pulled apart, as at the Gulf of Corinth, change in size (both horizontally and vertically) and composition. To the east of the Krathis valley, the sediments are being uplifted and are dominated by less competent sandstones and siltstones, as opposed to the conglomerates found in the Valimi fault block.

“The present landscape along this part of the rift margin forms large valleys covered by active landslides,” clarifies Romain. “In this photograph, the road was initially constructed directly on silts which were deposited by lakes and rivers. Up the hill, a temporary track currently replaces the road but this track still remains within an active landslide.”


Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at

Who do you think most deserves the title of the Mother of Geology?

Who do you think most deserves the title of the Mother of Geology?

Much ink is spilled hailing the work of the early fathers of geology – and rightly so! James Hutton is the mind behind the theory of uniformitarianism, which underpins almost every aspect of geology and argues that processes operating at present operated in the same manner over geological time, while Sir Charles Lyell furthered the idea of geological time. William Smith, the coal miner and canal builder, who produced the first geological map certainly makes the cut as a key figure in the history of geological sciences, as does Alfred Wegener, whose initially contested theory of continental drift forms the basis of how we understand the Earth today.

Equally deserving of attention, but often overlooked, are the women who have made ground-breaking advances to the understanding of the Earth. But who the title of Mother of Geology should go to is up for debate, and we want your help to settle it!

In the style of our network blogger, Matt Herod, we’ve prepared a poll for you to cast your votes! We’ve picked five leading ladies of the geoscience to feature here, but they should only serve as inspiration. There are many others who have contributed significantly to advancing the study of the planet, so please add their names and why you think they are deserving of the title of Mother of Geology, in the comment section below.

We found it particularly hard to find more about women in geology in non-English speaking country, so if you know of women in France, Germany, Spain, etc. who made important contributions to the field, please let us know!

Mary Anning (1799–1847)

Credited to 'Mr. Grey' in Crispin Tickell's book 'Mary Anning of Lyme Regis' (1996).

Mary Anning. Credited to ‘Mr. Grey’ in Crispin Tickell’s book ‘Mary Anning of Lyme Regis’ (1996).

Hailing from the coastal town of Lyme Regis in the UK, Mary was born to Richard Anning, a carpenter with an interest in fossil collecting. On the family’s doorstep were the fossil-rich cliffs of the Jurassic coast. The chalky rocks provided a life-line to Mary, her brother and mother, when her father died eleven years after Mary was born. Upon his death, Richard left the family with significant debt, so Mary and her brother turned to fossil-collecting and selling to make a living.

Mary had a keen eye for anatomy and was an expert fossil collector. She and her brother are responsible for the discovery of the first Ichthyosaurs specimen, as well as the first plesiosaur.

When Mary started making her fossil discoveries in the early 1800s, geology was a burgeoning science. Her discoveries contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of life and palaeontology.

Mary’s influence is even more noteworthy given that she was living at a time when science was very much a man’s profession. Although the fossils Mary discovered where exhibited and discussed at the Geological Society of London, she wasn’t allowed to become a member of the recently formed union and she wasn’t always given full credit for her scientific discoveries.

Charlotte Murchinson (1788–1869)

Roderick and Charlotte Murchinson made a formidable team. A true champion of science, and geology in particular, Charlotte, ignited and fuelled her husband’s pursuit of a career in science after resigning his post as an Army officer.

Roderick Murchinson’s seminal work on establishing the first geologic sequence of Early Paleozoic strata would have not arisen had it not been for his wife’s encouragement. With Roderick, Charlotte travelled the length and breadth of Britain and Europe (along with notable friend Sir Charles Lylle), collecting fossils (one of the couple’s trips took them to Lyme Regis where they met and worked with Mary Anning, who later became a trusted friend) and studying the geology of the old continent.  Roderick’s first paper, presented at the Geological Society in 1825 is thought to have been co-written by Charlotte.

Not only was Charlotte a champion for the sciences, but she was a believer in gender equality. When Charles Lylle refused women to take part in his lectures at Kings Collage London, at her insistence he changed his views.

Florence Bascom (1862–1945)

By Camera Craft Studios, Minneapolis - Creator/Photographer: Camera Craft Studios, Minneapolis Medium: Black and white photographic print. Persistent Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives Collection: Science Service Records, 1902-1965 (Record Unit 7091)

By Camera Craft Studios, Minneapolis – Creator/Photographer: Camera Craft Studios, Minneapolis. Persistent Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives Collection: Science Service Records, 1902-1965 (Record Unit 7091)

Talk about a life of firsts: Florence Bascom, an expert in crystallography, mineralogy, and petrography, was the first woman hired by the U.S Geological Survey (back in 1896); she was the first woman to be elected to the Geological Society of America (GSA) Council (in 1924) and was the GSA’s first woman officer (she served as vice-president in 1930).

Florence’s PhD thesis (she undertook her studies at Johns Hopkins University, where she had to sit behind a screen during lectures so the male student’s wouldn’t know she was there!), was ground-breaking because she identified, for the first time, that rocks previously thought to be sediments were, in fact, metamorphosed lavas. She made important contributions to the understanding of the geology of the Appalachian Mountains and mapped swathes of the U.S.

Perhaps influenced by her experience as a woman in a male dominated world, she lectured actively and went to set-up the geology department at Bryn Mawr College, the first college where women could pursue PhDs, and which became an important 20th century training centre for female geologist.

Inge Lehmann (1888-1993)

There are few things that scream notoriety as when a coveted Google Doodle is made in your honour. It’s hardly surprising that Google made such a tribute to Inge Lehmann, on the 127th Anniversary of her birth, on 13th May 2015.

The Google Doodle celebrating Inge Lehmann's 127th birthday.

The Google Doodle celebrating Inge Lehmann’s 127th birthday.

A Danish seismologist born in 1888, Inge experienced her first earthquake as a teenager. She studied maths, physics and chemistry at Oslo and Cambridge Universities and went on to become an assistant to geodesist Niels Erik Nørlund. While installing seismological observatories across Denmark and Greenland, Inge became increasingly interested in seismology, which she largely taught herself. The data she collected allowed her to study how seismic waves travel through the Earth. Inge postulated that the Earth’s core wasn’t a single molten layer, as previously thought, but that an inner core, with properties different to the outer core, exists.

But as a talented scientist, Inge’s contribution to the geosciences doesn’t end there. Her second major discovery came in the late 1950s and is named after her: the Lehmann Discontinuity is a region in the Earth’s mantle at ca. 220 km where seismic waves travelling through the planet speed up abruptly.

Marie Tharp (1920-2006)

That the sea-floor of the Atlantic Ocean is traversed, from north to south by a spreading ridge is a well-established notion. That tectonic plates pull apart and come together along boundaries across the globe, as first suggested by Alfred Wegener, underpins our current understanding of the Earth. But prior to the 1960s and 1970s Wegener’s theory of continental drift was hotly debated and viewed with scepticism.

Bruce Heezen and Marie Tharp with the 1977 World Ocean’s Map. Credit: Marie Tharp maps, distributed via Flickr.

Bruce Heezen and Marie Tharp with the 1977 World Ocean’s Map. Credit: Marie Tharp maps, distributed via Flickr.

In the wake of the Second World War, in 1952, in the then under resourced department of Columbia University, Marie Tharp, a young scientist originally from Ypsilanti (Michigan), poured over soundings of the Atlantic Ocean. Her task was to map the depth of the ocean.

By 1977, Marie and her boss, geophysicist Bruce Heezen, had carefully mapped the topography of the ocean floor, revealing features, such as the until then unknown, Mid-Atlantic ridge, which would confirm, without a doubt, that the planet is covered by a thin (on a global scale) skin of crust which floats atop the Earth’s molten mantle.

Their map would go on to pave the way for future scientists who now knew the ocean floors weren’t vast pools of mud. Despite beginning her career at Columbia as a secretary to Bruce, Marie’s role in producing the beautiful world ocean’s map propelled her into the oceanography history books.

Over to you! Who do you think the title of the Mother of Geology should go to? We ran a twitter poll last week, asking this very question, and the title, undisputedly, went to Mary Anning. Do you agree?

By Laura Roberts, EGU Communications Officer


All references to produce this post are linked to directly from the text.

EGU, the European Geosciences Union, is Europe’s premier geosciences union, dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the Earth, planetary, and space sciences for the benefit of humanity, worldwide. It is a non-profit international union of scientists with over 12,500 members from all over the world. Its annual General Assembly is the largest and most prominent European geosciences event, attracting over 11,000 scientists from all over the world.

This text was edited on 1 Septmember 2016 to correct the spelling of Weger. With thanks to Torbjörn Larsson for spotting the typo.


New study of natural CO2 reservoirs: Carbon dioxide emissions can be safely buried underground for climate change mitigation

New study of natural CO2 reservoirs: Carbon dioxide emissions can be safely buried underground for climate change mitigation

New research shows that natural accumulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) that have been trapped underground for around 100,000 years have not significantly corroded the rocks above, suggesting that storing CO2 in reservoirs deep underground is much safer and more predictable over long periods of time than previously thought, explains Suzanne Hangx a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Utrecht.

The findings, published today in the journal Nature Communications, demonstrate the viability of a process called carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a solution to reducing carbon emissions from coal and gas-fired power stations, say researchers.

About 80% of the global carbon emissions emitted by the energy sector come from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases large volumes of CO2 into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change. With the growing global energy demand, fossil fuels are likely to continue to remain part of the energy mix. To mitigate CO2 emissions, one possible solution is to capture the carbon dioxide produced at power stations, compress it, and pump it into reservoirs in the rock more than a kilometer underground. This process is called carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 must remain buried for at least 10,000 years to help alleviate the impacts of climate change.

The key component in the safety of geological storage of CO2 is an impermeable rock barrier (the ‘lid’ or caprock) over the porous rock layer (the ‘container’ or reservoir) in which the CO2 is stored in the pores – see Figure X. Although the CO2 will be injected as a dense fluid, it is still less dense than the brines originally filling the pores in the reservoir sandstones, and will rise until trapped by the relatively impermeable caprocks. One of the main concerns is that the CO2 will then slowly dissolve in the reservoir pore water, forming a slightly acidic, carbonated solution, which can only enter the caprock by diffusion through the pore water, a very slow process.

Some earlier studies, using computer simulations and laboratory experiments, have suggested that caprocks might be progressively corroded as these acidic, carbonated solutions diffuse upwards, creating weaker and more permeable layers of rock several meters thick and, in turn, jeopardizing the secure retention of the CO2.  Therefore, for the safe implementation of carbon capture and storage, it is important to accurately determine how long the CO2 pumped underground will remain securely buried. This has important implications for regulating, maintaining, and insuring future CO2 storage sites.

Schematic diagram of a storage site showing the injection of CO2 (in yellow) at a depth of more than one kilometer into a layer of porous rock (the ‘container’ or reservoir), and kept from moving upwards by a sealing layer (the ‘lid’ or caprock). Via Global CCS Institute

Schematic diagram of a storage site showing the injection of CO2 (in yellow) at a depth of more than one kilometer into a layer of porous rock (the ‘container’ or reservoir), and kept from moving upwards by a sealing layer (the ‘lid’ or caprock). Via Global CCS Institute

To understand what will happen in complex, natural systems, on much longer time-scales than can be achieved in a laboratory, a team of international researchers and industry experts traveled to the Colorado Plateau in the USA, where large natural pockets of CO2 have been safely buried underground in sedimentary rocks for over 100,000 years. The team drilled deep below the surface into one of the natural CO2 reservoirs in a drilling project sponsored by Shell, to recover samples of these rock layers and the fluids confined in the rock pores.

The team studied the corrosion of the rock by the acidic carbonated water, and how this has affected the ability of the caprock to act as an effective trap over long periods of time (thousands to millions of years). Their analysis studied the mineralogy and geochemistry of the caprock and included bombarding samples of the rock with neutrons at a facility in Germany to better understand any changes that may have occurred in the pore structure and permeability of the caprock.

They found that the CO2 had very little impact on corrosion of the caprock, with corrosion limited to a layer only 7cm thick. This is considerably less than the amount of corrosion predicted in some earlier studies, which suggested that this layer might be many metres thick. The researchers also used computer simulations, calibrated with data collected from the rock samples, to show that this layer took at least 100,000 years to form, an age consistent with how long the site is known to have contained CO2. The research demonstrates that the natural resistance of the caprock minerals to the acidic carbonated waters makes burying CO2 underground a far more predictable and secure process than previously estimated. With careful evaluation, burying carbon dioxide underground will prove safer than emitting CO2 directly to the atmosphere.

By Suzanne Hangx, Post Doctoral Researcher at the University of Utrecht


Kampman, N.; Busch, A.; Bertier, P.; Snippe, J.; Hangx, S.; Pipich, V.; Di, Z.; Rother, G.; Harrington, J. F.; Evans, J. P.; Maskell, A.; Chapman, H. J.; Bickle, M. J., Observational evidence confirms modelling of the long-term integrity of CO2-reservoir caprocks. Nat Commun 2016, 7.

The research was conducted by an international consortium led by Cambridge University together with universities in Aachen (Germany) and Utrecht (Netherlands), the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (Germany), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA), the British Geological Survey (UK) and Shell Global Solutions International (Netherlands). The Cambridge research into the CO2 reservoirs in Utah was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (CRIUS consortium of Cambridge, Manchester and Leeds universities and the British Geological Survey) and the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Geosciences Column: Pollen tells a 7300 year old story of Malta’s climate and vegetation

Geosciences Column: Pollen tells a 7300 year old story of Malta’s climate and vegetation

Figuring out what the climate was like, and how it changed, throughout Earth’s history is like trying to complete a 1000 piece puzzle. Except that scientists usually don’t have all the nuggets and building a comprehensive picture relies on a multidisciplinary approach in order to fill in the blanks.

This is particularly true during the Holocene, which spans the last 11,700 years of the Earth’s history, and began at the end of the last ice age. It marks a time of significant climate change across the planet, coupled with changing vegetation dynamics and the emergence of humans, who even at that early time, started leaving their mark on Earth. Bringing together all the evidence to build a complete picture of what the environment looked like is no easy task.

The Mediterranean, in particular, is considered a hot-spot for changing climate and biodiversity in the Holocene. The start of the epoch, in southern Europe, was characterised by a wet climate. The late Holocene, dominated by the presence of humans, is thought to have been warmer and drier. But disentangling the signature of naturally induced change vs. anthropogenically induced change continues to be difficult.

Queue the Maltese archipelago.

A small archipelago in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea

Located in the centre of the Mediterranean basin, approximately 96 km south of Sicily, Malta and a cluster of low-lying islands, including Gozo and Comino, are the focus of a recently published study in the open access journal Climate of the Past.

Study area. (a) Mediterranean region highlighting the Maltese Islands. Selected regional sites mentioned in text: 1: Lago Preola, 2: Gorgo Basso, 3: Biviere di Gela, 4: Lago Pergusa, 5: Lago Trifoglietti, 6: Lago Accesa, 7: Lago Ledro, 8: Tenaghi P., 9: SL152, 10: MNB-3, 11: NS14, 12: HCM2-22, 13: Soreq Cave; base map source: Arizona Geographic Alliance; (b) Maltese Islands: key sites mentioned in text; (c) average annual temperature and rainfall, based on Galdies (2011) data for the 30-year climatic period 1961–1990; (d) the topography and catchment area (blue) of Burmarrad.

Study area. (a) Mediterranean region highlighting the Maltese Islands. (Selected regional sites mentioned in text of the paper, but not mentioned in this blog post). (b) Maltese Islands. (Key sites mentioned in text of the paper, but not mentioned in this blog post). (c) average annual temperature and rainfall, based on Galdies (2011) data for the 30-year climatic period 1961–1990; (d) the topography and catchment area (blue) of Burmarrad. From B. Gambin et al. (2016). Click to enlarge.

It is their central Mediterranean location that makes the collection of isles so attractive, as they provide a good representation of the overall Mediterranean climate and can help decipher some of the questions regarding southern European climate during the Holocene.

The first human occupants sailed the short distance from Sicily, to settle in the region some 7200 years ago, introducing with them vegetation changes to the area. This well-defined date can be used as a possible marker to distinguish between naturally induced vegetation changes, brought about by climate variations, versus those triggered by the presence of humans.

In the paper, the researchers, led by B. Gambin, also present the first palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the Maltese islands and an updated palaeovegetation reconstruction.

But as encouraging as it sounds, using the Maltese archipelago as a study site for palaeoclimatic reconstructions has one, rather large, limitation. It has no peat bogs or lake deposits, which are the most suitable sites for the collection of data on old vegetation.

Using pollen to reconstruct the story of past climate

The spring and summer months are synonym of the onset of hay fever season for many. But the allergy triggering grains also play a surprisingly important role when it comes to reconstructing past climates, especially when there are no lakes or peat bogs around!

Palynology, the study of pollen grains, has been an important element in piecing together the history of our planet’s past climates since the early 20th Century.

Ancient pollen grains, extracted from sedimentary cores, can contribute to identifying changes in vegetation over time for a given region. If an area’s plant life changes to include more drought resistant varieties, it can point towards a warming climate in that region, whereas propagation of water-loving species might indicate wetter climes. Similarly, a sudden increase (or change) in the presence of pollen from cultivated taxa, like wheat, barely, olives, grapes, etc… highlights the presence of human (anthropogenic) influences in the region.

It is the pollen record, extracted from a core drilled in the region of Burmarrad in Northwest Malta, that the team of scientists used to compile their Maltese palaeoclimatic reconstruction.

Mediterranean climate and key events throughout the late Holocene

BM2 sedimentary profile and age–depth model interpo- lated curve. Dates on the core obtained via radiocarbon dating (for method and age detials, please see the paper). From B. Gambin et al. (2016).

BM2 sedimentary profile and age–depth model interpolated curve. Dates on the core obtained via radiocarbon dating (for method and age detials, please see the paper). From B. Gambin et al. (2016). Click to enlarge.

The 10m long BM2 drill core, extracted using a percussion corer, contained information on the climate, vegetation and precipitation history of the Maltese islands from the early Neolithic period (7280 before present,(BP)) through to the Roman age (1730 BP).

The early Neolothic

Pollen samples collected from the oldest section of the core indicate that from 7280 BP through to 6700 BP the Burmarrad region surrounded an ancient bay (in contrast to the present day agricultural plain setting) with the local vegetation affirming this. The researchers found pollen from non-arboreal (such as herbs and shrubs) taxa, as well as pollen from aquatic and marine species, such as Botryococcus, a common green algae species.

Drill core analysis also highlighted that average temperatures during this period were mild, stable and comparable to present-day values; while winter and summer precipitation levels were relatively high.

The early Neolithic period on the island coincided with the arrival of permanent settlers. But many of the pollen species which usually indicate the onset of anthropogenic influences are also native to Malta making it difficult for the scientists to draw conclusions as to whether the vegetation records show the arrival of the first human inhabitants.

A moister climate from 6700 BP resulted in the spread of Pistacia, a leafy green shrub, across the ancient bay. The damper conditions prevailed across the southern Mediterranean, with increased Pistacia populations found in Sicily and Spain too. The geographically wide-spread nature of the vegetation change indicates it was likely climate driven.

Templar period

By 6050 BP, human settlers started to make their presence felt on the tiny island. Communities started building free-standing stone temples, used for ritual purposes, which are unique to Malta. This settling period is accompanied by the rise in pollen from Olea plants – otherwise known as olive trees – herbaceous taxa such as Brassicaceae (which include mustard plants, radishes and cabbages), and fungus spores which occur in the dung of domestic livestock as well as wild herbivores.

Ggantija Temples of Malta. Image by Daniel Hausner. Attribution to Norum [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Ggantija Temples of Malta. Image by Daniel Hausner. Attribution to Norum [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons.

While individually these plants do not directly indicate vegetation change brought about by humans, when found together they do suggest human activity in the region, particularly the onset of grazing livestock.

The Bronze Age

The onset of the Bronze Age (4900 to 2650 BP) was marked by a drier climate where winter precipitation decreased and annual temperatures fluctuated between lows of 7°C and highs of 14°C. This coincides with the decrease in abundance of tree pollen found in the BM2 core and an increase in herbaceous taxa (plants which don’t have permanent woody stems).

Microcharcoal horizons become more prevalent in the core too, indicating an increase in fire activity. The drier climate and subsequent vegetation change might be a contributing factor to the increased burning in the region, but it is also likely that slash-and-burn farming was taking hold at this time. Further human activity is indicated by the rise in pollen from plants associated with pastoral activity and the increase in fungus spores commonly found in the dung of livestock.

The strain put on the environment of the Burmarrad Bay at this time is evident by the rise of algal spores and the Glomus fungus, typically associated with increased soil erosion rates. It is further supported by a reduction in overall pollen count in the core, indicating the land could support less plant-life.

The increased erosion rates had a significant impact on the landscape, with the marine lagoon slowly infilling with sediment and eventually becoming landlocked throughout the Bronze Age.

Roman occupation period

By 1972 BP the area became a well-developed fertile deltaic plain, so it’s not surprising that an increase in pollen concentrations from cultivated crop taxa, pointing towards a rise in agricultural activity, were found in the core. The area also benefited from a long period of stable climate with limited temperature and precipitation changes.

During this time, Malta became an important producer and exporter of olive oil, as evidenced by the extensive port-like remains, of this age, found across the island. This is supported by the Olea pollen count in the core, which is high too.

Synthesis of cultural phases, LPAZs (local pollen assemblage zones), sediment, vegetation dynamics, and climatic reconstruction: BM2 core, Malta. From B. Gambin et al. (2016).

Synthesis of cultural phases, LPAZs (local pollen assemblage zones), sediment, vegetation dynamics, and climatic reconstruction: BM2 core, Malta. From B. Gambin et al. (2016). Click to enlarge.

Climate- vs. human –driven environmental change in the Holocene

The research shows just how powerful palynology is as a tool for reconstructing past climates. The study of the BM2 core allowed scientists to put together a 7300 year history of climatic, vegetation and anthropogenic change in Malta.

At the same time it highlights the ongoing challenge of unravelling the signature of climate- vs. human –driven environmental change in the Holocene.

Taken as a whole, the researchers hope that the findings can be a starting point for further research into this subject, with hopes to gain better understanding of the factors and processes affecting past, present and future Mediterranean landscapes.

By Laura Roberts Artal, EGU Communications Officer


Gambin, B., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Médail, F., Marriner, N., Peyron, O., Montade, V., Gambin, T., Morhange, C., Belkacem, D., and Djamali, M.: 7300 years of vegetation history and climate for NW Malta: a Holocene perspective, Clim. Past, 12, 273-297, doi:10.5194/cp-12-273-2016, 2016.


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