GeoLog

Hydrological Sciences

Photo Contest finalists 2016 – who will you vote for?

The selection committee received over 400 photos for this year’s EGU Photo Contest, covering fields across the geosciences. The fantastic finalist photos are below and they are being exhibited in Hall X2 (basement, Brown Level) of the Austria Center Vienna – see for yourself!

Do you have a favourite? Vote for it! There is a voting terminal (also in Hall X2), just next to the exhibit. The results will be announced on Friday 22 April during the lunch break (at 12:15).

 'Icebound blades of grass' . Credit: Katja Laute (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). A close up of blades of grass totally coated with ice. The photo was taken at sunset along the shoreline of Selbusjøen, a lake in middle Norway. The coating of the ice was built through the interplay of wave action and the simultaneously freezing of the water around the single blades of grass.

‘Icebound blades of grass’. Credit: Katja Laute (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). A close up of blades of grass totally coated with ice. The photo was taken at sunset along the shoreline of Selbusjøen, a lake in middle Norway. The coating of the ice was built through the interplay of wave action and the simultaneously freezing of the water around the single blades of grass.

 'There is never enough time to count all the stars that you want.' . Credit: Vytas Huth (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The centre of the Milky Way taken near Krakow am See, Germany. Some of the least light-polluted atmosphere of the northern german lowlands.

‘There is never enough time to count all the stars that you want’. Credit: Vytas Huth (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The centre of the Milky Way taken near Krakow am See, Germany. Some of the least light-polluted atmosphere of the northern german lowlands.

 'Full moon over Etna's fire'. Credit: Severine Furst (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Etna is one of the most active volcano on Earth but also one the most monitored. As soon as instruments show any signs of volcanic activity, scientists from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) of Catania urge to the summit to gather various eruption data. In this summer evening, the fresh wind sweep the clouds to reveal the rise of the full moon over one of Etna's summit craters where a strombolian eruption is taking place.

‘Full moon over Etna’s fire’. Credit: Severine Furst (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Etna is one of the most active volcano on Earth but also one the most monitored. As soon as instruments show any signs of volcanic activity, scientists from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) of Catania urge to the summit to gather various eruption data. In this summer evening, the fresh wind sweep the clouds to reveal the rise of the full moon over one of Etna’s summit craters where a strombolian eruption is taking place.

 'There is never enough time to count all the stars that you want.' . Credit: Vytas Huth (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Ice on Jokulsarlon beach in Iceland. Ice calving off the Breidamerkurjokull, one of the glaciers comprising the Vatnajokull, the largest glacier in Iceland. The is retreating rapidly, and in the process has created a large glacial lagoon known for its spectacular icebergs.

‘Glowing Ice’. Credit: Vytas Huth (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Ice on Jokulsarlon beach in Iceland. Ice calving off the Breidamerkurjokull, one of the glaciers comprising the Vatnajokull, the largest glacier in Iceland. The is retreating rapidly, and in the process has created a large glacial lagoon known for its spectacular icebergs.

 'Ice lace flower'. Credit: Maria Elena Popa (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Early morning shot of a spider web with frozen water droplets. The photo has been turned upside down, to make it look like a flower.

‘Ice lace flower’. Credit: Maria Elena Popa (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Early morning shot of a spider web with frozen water droplets. The photo has been turned upside down, to make it look like a flower.

 Sphalerite's "Transformer"'. Credit: Dmitry Tonkacheev (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The bulk of Au wire "boards" on the dark-brown phase surface in the form of fascination crystals (usually arborescent). Some of them look like a weapon from the "Transformers" arsenal or parts of his armor. Also bright diamond luster of this creature makes our "Knight" even more ultra-modern.

‘Sphalerite’s “Transformer”‘. Credit: Dmitry Tonkacheev (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The bulk of Au wire “boards” on the dark-brown phase surface in the form of fascination crystals (usually arborescent). Some of them look like a weapon from the “Transformers” arsenal or parts of his armor. Also bright diamond luster of this creature makes our “Knight” even more ultra-modern.

 'Nimbostratus painting the sky'. Credit: y María Burguet (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). This photo was taken in Valencia (Spain) during a storm formation. Nimbostratus are described as a grey cloud cover with a veiled appearance due to the precipitation (liquid or solid) holded within them. They are formed when a large layer of relatively warm and humid air ascend above a cold air mass. Together with the Altostratus, it is the core of a warm front.

‘Nimbostratus painting the sky’. Credit: María Burguet (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). This photo was taken in Valencia (Spain) during a storm formation. Nimbostratus are described as a grey cloud cover with a veiled appearance due to the precipitation (liquid or solid) held within them. They are formed when a large layer of relatively warm and humid air ascend above a cold air mass. Together with the Altostratus, it is the core of a warm front.

 'Living flows'. Credit: Marc Girons Lopez (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). River branches and lagoons in the Rapa river delta, Sarek National Park, northern Sweden. The lush vegetation creates a stark contrast with the glacial sediments transported by the river creating a range of tonalities.

‘Living flows’. Credit: Marc Girons Lopez (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). River branches and lagoons in the Rapa river delta, Sarek National Park, northern Sweden. The lush vegetation creates a stark contrast with the glacial sediments transported by the river creating a range of tonalities.

 'View of the Mausoleum'. Credit: Mike Smith (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The north Antrim coast in Northern Ireland, featuring one of the most spectacular coastal roads. In the distance the Mussenden Temple, built in 1785 as a reclusive library 40 m above the Atlantic Ocean.

‘View of the Mausoleum’. Credit: Mike Smith (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The north Antrim coast in Northern Ireland, featuring one of the most spectacular coastal roads. In the distance the Mussenden Temple, built in 1785 as a reclusive library 40 m above the Atlantic Ocean.

 'Frozen angel'. Credit: Mikhail Varentsov (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Go-Pro camera, covered by hoarfrost, at sunrise, looks like fantasy-style angel with sword and banner. Photo made during NABOS-2015 expedition.

‘Frozen angel’. Credit: Mikhail Varentsov (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). Go-Pro camera, covered by hoarfrost, at sunrise, looks like fantasy-style angel with sword and banner. Photo made during NABOS-2015 expedition.

In addition, this year, to celebrate the theme of the EGU 2016 General Assembly, Active Planet, the photo that best captured the theme of the conference was selected by the judges. The winner is this stunning photo entitled ‘Mirror mirror in the sea…’, by Mario Hoppmann! Congratulations! This too is being exhibited in Hall X2 (basement, Brown Level) of the Austria Center Vienna.

 'Mirror Mirror in the sea...' . Credit: Mario Hoppmann (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). A polar bear is testing the strength of thin sea ice. Polar bears and their interaction with the cryosphere are a prime example of how the biosphere is able to adapt to an "Active Planet". They are also a prime example of how the anthropogenic influence on Earth's climate system endangers other lifeforms.

‘Mirror Mirror in the sea…’ . Credit: Mario Hoppmann (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). A polar bear is testing the strength of thin sea ice. Polar bears and their interaction with the cryosphere are a prime example of how the biosphere is able to adapt to an “Active Planet”. They are also a prime example of how the anthropogenic influence on Earth’s climate system endangers other lifeforms.

Imaggeo on Mondays: recreating geological processes in the lab

Imaggeo on Mondays: recreating geological processes in the lab

Many of the processes which take place on Earth happen over very long time scales, certainly when compared to the life span of a person. The same is true for geographical scale. Many of the processes which dominate how our planet behaves are difficult to visualise given the vast distances (and depths) over which they occur.

To overcome this difficulty, scientists have developed and resorted to a number of tools; from geological mapping right through to generating computer models. One such tool dates back some two centuries: analogue experiments. Initially they started off as roughly scaled experiments to test a range of hypothesis. Famously, James Hutton used analogue models to prove that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. With time they have become increasingly sophisticated, allowing researchers to replicate a vast range of conditions and environments which lead to a better understanding of how our planet works.

Today’s Imaggeo on Monday’s image, by Stephane Dominguez, a researcher Chargé de Recherche CNRS, in Montpellier, shows the final evolution stage of an analog experiment dedicated to the study of Relief Dynamics – how surface topography comes to be – and what role tectonics, erosion and sedimentation play in the formation of landscapes. In such experiments, typical scaling is 1cm = a few hundred meters and 1s = a few tens of years.

In this particular experiment “we used a specific granular material mixture (made of water saturated silica, microbeads, PVC and graphite powders, to simulate a portion of the upper terrestrial crust submitted to tectonic extension (where the crust is being stretched, such as at, but not limited to, continental rifts and divergent plate boundries),”explains Stephane.

At the same time, the research team used a rainfall system to project micro water droplets on the model surface. This causes water runoff to initiate and starts the growing reliefs to be eroded.

“We obtain a very realistic morphology that continuously evolves in response to complex interactions between surface deformation (induced by normal fault activity – caused by the stretching of the crust) and surface processes (erosion, sediment transport and deposition).”

 

References

Ranalli, G.: Experimental tectonics: from Sir James Hall to the present, Journal of Geodynamics, 32, 65-76.

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

GeoTalk: Fishing meets science with waders and smartphones

GeoTalk: Fishing meets science with waders and smartphones

Dutch and American researchers have developed waders equipped with temperature sensors that enable fly-fishers to find the best fishing locations while collecting data to help scientists study streams. The research is published today (29 February) in Geoscientific Instrumentation Methods and Data Systems (GI), an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union. In this GeoTalk interview we talk to Rolf Hut, a hydrologist at the Delft University of Technology, and lead author of the paper, as well as with Tim van Emmerik, co-author of the paper and also a hydrologist at Delft University of Technology, to learn more about this unique invention and its application for both hydrologists and fly fishers!

What was the motivation behind this study? How did the idea to use temperature sensing waders for environmental sciences come about?

Rolf: The idea originated during a discussion between Scott Tyler and I at the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting . We were discussing the difficulty in calibrating DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing, see Selker et al., 2006) in streambeds and suddenly the thought popped in our heads that we are wearing waders when installing DTS cables, why not equip the waders with temperature sensors? When we started to further think this idea through (beer may have been involved), we realised that fly-fishers walking in streams with temperature sensing waders would make a great source of data for scientists studying hyporheic exchange (the study of groundwater-streamwater interaction).

Furthermore, fly fishers themselves could benefit from knowing local stream temperature to find optimal fishing locations. Therefore, we set out to, as a first test, prove that temperature sensing waders could potentially provide this information. The result of that test is presented in our current paper.

What data do you hope to collect with your waders and what applications, both for the scientific community and the wider public, would the data have?

Rolf Hut testing the temperature-sensing waders in the field. Credit: Tim van Emmerik

Rolf Hut testing the temperature-sensing waders in the field. Credit: Tim van Emmerik

Rolf: As scientists, we hope these data help us better understand where groundwater enters streams and where stream water drains away to the groundwater. Hyporheic exchange (groundwater-streamwater interaction) is a complex field of study, with very local places where groundwater enters small streams. Understanding this is vital in understanding stream-water ecology: which species live where in the stream. Ultimately, good understanding of stream dynamics helps us advise policies that better balance multiple use of stream water: as a natural habitat for plants and animals, and as a human drinking resource and place for recreation.

However, measurements of streamflow dynamics, including stream temperature, are usually labour intensive and at the same time, stream dynamics vary highly between different streams. For better understanding, more measurements are needed, but scientists are (rightly so) budget constrained in this. Therefore, we believe our temperature sensing waders, when applied at large scale, can be very beneficial to our understanding of stream dynamics.

Tim: In just the USA alone, an estimated 27 million recreational anglers regularly fish in freshwater streams and lakes. Imagine if they were all equipped with a temperature sensing wader! This would mean a constant supply of new, accurate data, which can be used to estimate water quality and quantity, fish ‘hotspots’, and overall state of the ecosystem.

How did you show your idea of using waders and smartphones to measure water temperature was feasibility?

Rolf: In this paper we only wanted to test whether a sensor in the bottom of a wader would be able to detect (large) differences in stream temperature so we could pinpoint locations of groundwater-streamwater interaction.

We tested this in two ways. First, we tested it in the field by walking in a stream where we knew a localised influx of cold groundwater was present. I was wearing the waders and also used a reference thermometer to measure water temperature. Secondly, we tested how long it takes for the waders to change temperature when exposed to a drop, or rise, in temperature. We tested this in the Water Lab of Delft University of Technology by preheating the waders and then exposing it to the colder water of the flume in our lab. We differed the flow velocity in the flume, and also tested what the influence of having a (warm blooded) human leg in the wader was to the temperature it sensed.

Could you clarify what advances you’ve made since you first presented this research at the EGU General Assembly last April?

Rolf: After the initial idea, I submitted an abstract to the General Assembly. In the abstract for the GA I merely promised to “show a prototype”. Because of other academic deadlines, and my own chaotic mind, this meant that the prototype demonstrated at the General Assembly was made the Sunday before the GA started, in our AirBnB apartment in Vienna. My poster had an explanation of “the idea” in it, and my phone showed the real-time temperature of the wader. I had to calibrate it on the spot, so I needed both a hot and a cold reference temperature. We used the ice intended for the beers during the poster session as cold calibration. If people are still wondering why the beer was not as cold as it should have been that day: now they know. Hooray for last minute science :-s. However, walking around in waders during the poster session drew the attention of journalist who covered our work. Which was, honestly, at that point at a very early stage. For the work presented in this paper, we took the time to be more precise and did a proper calibration in our lab.

Tim: The presentation at EGU got a lot of enthusiastic reactions, from scientists, professionals, journalists, and many others. We used the momentum that was gained at the GA to very effectively do our lab measurements, fieldwork campaign at a beautiful Dutch windmill-filled site, and wrap up the study in a concise paper.

Location in the Dutch country side where researchers tested their prototype waders. Credit: Tim van Emmerik

Location in the Dutch country side where researchers tested their prototype waders. Credit: Tim van Emmerik

Do you have any plans to actively engage the fishing community and get members of the public to use the waders?

Rolf: Now that we have demonstrated first feasibility we want to discus with producers of waders to find the best way to easily incorporate sensors in many waders. Once that is sorted out, we want to reach out to communities with interest, such as (fly-)fishing groups, local conservation groups and schools. After the press coverage that the GA sparked, several of these groups already reached out to us. I have kept that at arm’s length for now, because we wanted to be sure that the ideal would hold up to a first test, which we now have demonstrated.

In your view, what are the most important results and implications of this study?

Rolf: it works!

Basically, we had a wild idea at the AGU Fall Meeting and demonstrated a prototype at the EGU General Assembly. We now have demonstrated that this prototype is capable of measuring the type of temperature changes we are interested in. With that hurdle taken, the road to citizen science campaigns is now open.

Tim: This work really is an example of how relatively simple measurement devices can be fused with existing equipment to actively involve communities in gathering scientific data. It’s becoming a trend to find ways to incorporate ‘alternative’ communities in science. Whether it’s school kids or fishermen, studies like ours demonstrate that everyone can be a scientist.

For more information about the research published in Geoscientific Instrumentation Methods and Data Systems (GI) you can read the associated press release issued today to accompany the publication. You’ll also find the open-access paper by following this link.

Imaggeo on Mondays: The Groapa Ruginoasa

Imaggeo on Mondays: The Groapa Ruginoasa

The Apuseni National Park, in Romania, is a geoscientists paradise. This 187,000 acre Park in the Western Carpathians boasts caves, deep valleys and gorges, karst landscapes, rocky steep walls and underground watercourses. The sheer beauty of the landscape is captured in today’s Imaggeo on Mondays image featuring the Groapa Ruginoasa, a deep sandstone ravine.

“Locality names of morphological features often allow for drawing conclusions on the geological processes that shaped them,” says Martin Reiser, who took the photograph.

The steep, barren slopes of the so called “Groapa Ruginosa” (Romanian for rusty pit) nature monument show a stark contrast to the gentle morphology and green woods of the Apuseni National Park. This spectacular ravine was shaped by headward erosion of an intermittent stream in the Valea Seacă (“Dry Valley”). Headward erosion occurs at the start of channels and streams, causing the origin to move backward and thus elongating the water course. The steepness of the slope on which the channel forms contributes to the speeding up of the erosive processes.

The “rusty pit”  is about 100 m deep and measures ca. 600 m across. Although there are no studies on the rate of erosion at this locality, geological maps from the late 19th century show a fairly small extent of this morphological feature.

“The yellowish to reddish colour of the eroded Permian to Lower Triassic sediments (sandstones, conglomerates and phyllites) gave the ravine its name,” explains Martin. Further downstream, the name of the Valea Galbena (“Yellow Valley”) also relates to the colour of the stream that carries the eroded sediments.

 

By Martin Reiser, University of Innsbruck and Laura Roberts Artal, EGU Communication Officer.

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