GeoLog

General Assembly

GeoTalk: Wouter Berghuijs, Union Level Early Career Scientist Representative

GeoTalk: Wouter Berghuijs, Union Level Early Career Scientist Representative

The EGU offers a platform for early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April. One of the ways of ensuring that the voice of the Union’s ECS membership is heard is via the division early career scientist representatives.

Feedback gathered by the division representatives is collected by the Union level representative, who takes it to the EGU’s Programme Committee (PC) – the group responsible for organising the EGU’s annual General Assembly and the EGU Council – which is in charge of the overall management of the Union.  At the 2015 General Assembly (GA), Wouter Berghuijs, took on the role of union level Early Career Scientist Representative; a post he will hold until April 2016. In this instalment of GeoTalk, Wouter will tell us more about the ECS membership and how he hopes to make a difference to the community during his one-year term.

Before we get stuck in, could you introduce yourself and tell us a little more about yourself and your career?

My name is Wouter Berghuijs. I am a PhD student in Hydrology at the University of Bristol (UK). Prior to moving to Bristol, I gained an MSc and BSc in Civil Engineering at Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands). During my MSc, I spent three months at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) for a research stay, and a further three months at the University of Bristol. I have been involved with the EGU since 2013, first as the Young Scientist Representative for the Hydrology Division, and since the GA in 2015 as the Union-wide Early Career Scientist Representative (editors note – Council approved having the newly elected representative to have a Union-wide role, rather than just represent the ECS membership at the Programme Committee level).

In my day-to-day research I am interested in what factors drive hydrological differences between places. Instead of studying one place in detail, I compare several hundred catchments (surface area that drains rainfall into a river, lake or reservoir) located in different landscapes and climatic regions. The aspects of hydrologic behaviour I look at can range from floods to droughts, and from short-term dynamics to multi-decadal averages. With a large part of hydrological science consisting of case-studies at individual locations, findings are difficult to transfers to other places. The comparative approach brings in opportunities to develop generalisations and expose patterns that would not be observed when a single catchment is studied in isolation.

For those readers who might not be so familiar with the Union’s ECS membership, could you explain the main idea behind it and your role as Union Level Early Career Scientist Representative?

Approximately one quarter of the Unions’ membership consists of scientists in the early stages of their career. EGU wants to provide support to this group, which has different needs compared to more established scientists. Therefore EGU supports these members by providing reduced conference fees, recognising outstanding students, awarding travel grants, organising short-courses, arranging networking possibilities and more.

Instead of going for a top-down (senior members decide all) approach, EGU decided to appoint Early Career Scientists Representatives for all their scientific divisions. These representatives serve as the link between the ECS members and the board of the different divisions. It is their task to ensure ECS needs are met, both at the Assembly and throughout the year. Other ECS members with questions, comments and thoughts can get in touch with them to ensure their opinion is represented within their division.

In my position of Union level Early Career Scientist Representative, I gather information from each of the division representatives and bring it to the EGU’s Programme Committee – the group responsible for organising the EGU’s annual General Assembly, and the Union’s Council – the board responsible for the overall management and control of the Union.

Some of the ECS Representatives at the most recent General Assembly in Vienna. From left to right, top to bottom: Matthew Agius (SM), Shaun Harrigan (HS),

Some of the ECS Representatives at the 2014 General Assembly in Vienna. Top, from left to right, (in brackets, the Division they represent) : Matthew Agius (SM), Shaun Harrigan (HS), Wouter Berghuijs (ECS Representative), Roelof Rietbroek (G), Matthias Vanmaercke (SSS), Auguste Gires (NP), Nanna B. Karlsson (CR), Bottom (left to right): Ina Plesa (GD), Lena Noack (PS and Deputy Union Level ECS PC Representative), Sam Illingworth (ECS PC Representative , 2013- 2015), Guilhem Douillet (SSP), Anne Pluymakers (TS), Jone Peter (stand-in for Beate Krøvel Humberset, ST).

Why do you feel passionately about the ECS community?

The nice part of working for the ECS community is that relatively small contributions can make huge difference to people’s research career. For example, the ability to attend a conference due to an awarded travel grant can be really important to meet other people in your field and create exposure for your research. It sounds somewhat cliché, but the ECS members are the future of geoscience. An investment now in one of these members can be important for the next 40 years.

Additionally, with the recent appointment of ECS representatives it is an interesting task to start shaping how these representatives can best contribute to the Union, and can make sure they voice the opinion of a broad group of ECS members. With a significant part of the members being ECS it is a nice challenge to change this group from being mostly consumers of activities, to explicitly having them contributing at an organisation level.

What is your vision for the EGU ECS community and how do you hope to drive change during your year long position?

Sam Illingworth (on the left) handing over the batton of the ECS Community over to Wouter at EGU 2014. Image Credit: Roelof Rietbroek, ECS Representative for the EGU Geodesy Division.

Sam Illingworth (on the left) handing over the batton of the ECS Community over to Wouter at the EGU General Assembly, 2014. Image Credit: Roelof Rietbroek, ECS Representative for the EGU Geodesy Division.

Last year Sam Illingworth was the PC Early Career Scientist Representative and made a great start to bringing all ECS together and voice their opinion to Council. My first task is to continue this work. The relative short appointment (1-year) makes it difficult to ensure both short-term and long-term improvements to the Union are made. Short-term improvements involve, for example, dealing with the feedback that provided suggestion for improvement of next years’s GA. During the year I have regular Skype meetings with all ECS representatives, and it is then my task to make sure the outcomes are discussed during e.g. the programme committee meeting (where the plans for the upcoming GA are usually set out), and council meeting later this year.

Recently, the name used to refer to early researchers across EGU was changed from Young Scientist to Early Career Scientists. Could you tell us a little more about what brought about that change and its significance?

One of the findings of the 2014 Young Scientist Survey and Forum at the GA was that early career scientist did not identify with the term young scientists due to the age connotations associated with the name. ECS benefits were considered important during the onset of academic career, independent of the age of the person. The ECS Representatives put together a proposal promoting for the name change which was brought to the EGU Council; who voted in favour of the renaming. It highlights the bottom-up nature of the organisation and how early stage scientists can make a difference in the Union.

The past General Assembly, saw a record number of short courses take place and the growth of networking opportunities and ECS specific activities. What further changes can the ECS look forward to for the 2016 conference?

The young scientists' lounge at EGU 2014. Credit: Stephanie McClellan/EGU

The young scientists’ lounge at EGU 2014. Credit: Stephanie McClellan/EGU

The short courses and ECS specific activities have been very popular at this year’s EGU, and they are definitely a keeper. I don’t think these activities should increase in number, as it is not the intention to lure away the ECS from the regular parts of the scientific meeting; it is important that they also integrated as best as possible with the more established members of their divisions.

The goal for next year is mostly to maintain the activities that were a success, try a few new concepts for those sessions that didn’t work so well. There are also several improvements that can be made such as the capacity of the rooms of short courses and their timing compared to the rest of the programme.

How can those wanting to, get involved with the EGU?

EGU is a versatile organisation; besides organising their Annual General Assembly and running 17 peer-reviewed open access journals, EGU is busy with Topical meetings, education, and various forms of outreach. Because all these aspects are run by members there is always need for motivated people with refreshing ideas. If the ideas you have (or you want to develop) relate to your division, you should contact the respective ECS representative. If the ideas are broader ranging than your division, a good start is to contact me as the Union Level ECS representative.

You can also check the EGU volunteering pages, where you’ll find information on the helping out the EGU in their activities year round. Additionally, the EGU Blogs, from the EGU offical blog GeoLog, through to the Network and Division Blogs, welcome guest contributions; so if you’d like to report from an Earth science event, conference or fieldwork, or comment on the latest geoscientific developments and write about recently published findings in peer-reviewed journals you might consider sharing your thoughts on the Blogs. For more information or to submit a post, click here or get in touch with the EGU Communications Officer, Laura Roberts Artal.

A guide to convening a session at the EGU General Assembly – Part I

A guide to convening a session at the EGU General Assembly – Part I

Convening a session at a conference can seem daunting, especially if you are an early career research and a first-time convener. That’s why we’ve put together this two part series to outline the main steps of the process. With the call for sessions for the 2016 EGU General Assembly open until 18 September 2015, now is the perfect time to give it a go! The key ingredients are an idea for a session, a couple of co-conveners and a good session description.

How does it all work?

The EGU General Assembly is organised around the session programme, which consists of sessions representing all Programme Groups. (The organisation of sessions and the submission of abstracts are built around the session programme.

Programme Group (PG) chairs create a skeleton programme, based on the programme for previous General Assemblies, so that each PG has a few sessions in it to kick things off.

Then, the call for sessions opens, usually over the summer preceding the conference. This is the time when the scientific community is invited to suggest new sessions or modify skeleton programme sessions (you can propose a new title for a session, put someone forward to co-convene the session and/or make suggestions to improve the session description).

Once the call closes, the PG chairs evaluate the proposed sessions and decided if they should be included in the programme. They might also suggest modifications to skeleton sessions.

I’ve got an idea for a session, what do I do next?

Before submitting your session, you’ll need to make sure you have:

  • At least one session convener. If you’ve got some co-conveners on board already, make sure you consider gender diversity and invite (other) early career scientists to help you too! Additionally, select co-conveners from different countries and/or institutions. Please check with all conveners that they agree to co-convene the session.
  • A session title.
  • A session description. This isn’t mandatory at this stage, but useful for when the PGs evaluate whether your session should be included in the final programme.

You are able to amend the title and the description of the session, so you’ve got time to refine those at a later date.

Proposing a session

A screenshot of the convening a session tool on the EGU website. Click the image to englarge.

A screenshot of the convening a session tool on the EGU website. Click the image to englarge.

Once you’ve got all this in place, you are ready to submit your idea for a session! Simply head over to the provisional programme and select the PG which is most closely aligned to the subject of your session. This will display all the skeleton sessions (which you are welcome to recommend modifications for too) or click ‘Suggest a session here’ tab to submit your session idea.

You’ll be presented with screen which looks like the one above. Enter all your details and wait to hear back from the PG chair on their decision as to whether your session will go ahead.

My session may be of interest to more than one Programme Group, is this catered for?

A screenshot of the session proposal tool. Propose co-convened sessions by adding the request in the comments section.

A screenshot of the session proposal tool. Propose co-convened sessions by adding the request in the comments section. Click the image to englarge.

Co-convened sessions across disciplines are encouraged.

You can indicate that you’d like your session to be co-organised with another PG in the comments section of the submission tool. Make sure you indicate what PG you’d like to co-organise the session with and remember that the session needn’t be submitted to both groups, only the lead PG..

Your request for a cross PG collaboration will be evaluated by all relevant PG chairs and either accepted or rejected. In the case of acceptance, this session will be organised by all cooperation partners, but the leading PG chair will take primary responsibility for room bookings and time of the session.

I’d like to propose a PICO session, can I do that?

Once the call for sessions closes, during late September, session conveners have the option to change their session from a traditional oral and poster presentation session to a PICO (Presenting Interactive Content) session.

You’ll be able to do this using the ‘Session Programme Finalization’ tool. Use the edit pen, and indicate the PICO character there. PICO sessions will be shown as PICO sessions in the abstract submission, and authors cannot select an oral/poster preference as they will receive a PICO presentation regardless.

To learn more about the benefits of organising a PICO session, you can read this blog post we prepared in advance of the 2015 General Assembly.

A PICO spot at the EGU 2015 General Assembly. (Credit: EGU/Stephanie McClellan)

A PICO spot at the EGU 2015 General Assembly. (Credit: EGU/Stephanie McClellan)

I’ve proposed a session, what is the next step?

From when the call for sessions closes in mid-September, to mid-October, the Programme Committee and our conference organisers, Copernicus Meetings, do a lot of work behind the scenes to iron out any issues and finalise the conference programme.

As the programme is finalised, you’ll be notified once your session has been published on-line. You can then sit back and relax, at least for a little while! From mid-October until January, the call for abstracts is open. To generate interest in your session, you are encouraged to advertise it amongst your colleagues/collaborators and any potentially interested researchers within the field. If you are on social media platforms, we’d encourage you to promote your session this way too.

With the first steps of proposing a session covered, part II of this series we’ll take a look at what happens once the abstracts star rolling in. It will cover everything from the role of conveners in the process to allocate funds for travel support, to organisation of a session, including accepting/rejecting abstracts and planning the logistics of requesting a room and what happens during the conference. The post will also include tops tips from early career scientists who have been involved in the convening sessions in the past.

For more information on proposing and convening a session, take a look at the Programme Committee guidelines on the 2016 General Assembly website. The Tectonics and Structural Geology Division also has a nice step-by-step guide for conveners which contains lots of useful information. If you’ve been inspired to propose a session, follow this link to the call-for-sessions. If you needed a final incentive, as a thank you, the EGU invites all conveners for a reception at the end of the conference.

The European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 will take place in Vienna, Austria, from 17-22 April 2016 and will bring together geoscientists from all over the world to one meeting covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary and space sciences.

GeoEd: EGU General Assembly and GIFT 2015

GeoEd: EGU General Assembly and GIFT 2015

The most recent issue (Winter/Spring 2015) of the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter includes a piece, by Earth Science Correspondent, Michael J. Passow, on the 2015 General Assembly and the GIFT (Geosciences Information For Teachers) Workshop. Passow gives an account of this year’s workshop, on the topic of mineral resources, and outlines the participating teacher’s experience.

Each spring, the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly brings geoscientists from all over the world to Vienna for a conference covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary and space sciences. EGU 2015, convening 12-17 April, provided a forum where scientists, especially early career researchers, could present their work and discuss their ideas with experts in all fields of geoscience. Concurrently, nearly 80 educators from around the world gathered for the 11th Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop of the EGU. They included, for the first time, your correspondent.

This year’s GIFT workshop welcomed 76 teachers from 21 different countries. GIFT 2015 centered on the theme “Mineral Resources.” Driving this selection was growing awareness that expansion of the world population from 6 to 9.6 billion in 2050 and rapid industrialization of highly populated countries, combined with an overall higher standard of living, are expected to intensify global competition for natural resources and place additional pressure on the environment, both terrestrial and marine. We recognize that mineral reserves are being depleted, and concerns are growing about access to new raw materials, especially basic and strategic minerals. Rise in the price of several essential metals, for example copper, has prompted some industrialized countries to initiate concerted activities to ensure access to strategic minerals.

Participants of the GIFT workshop at the 2015 General Assembly. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Participants of the GIFT workshop at the 2015 General Assembly. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Europe has recently begun initiatives that attempt to solve the issue. Europe depends greatly on imports for many materials needed for construction and heavy and high-tech industries. Recycling, resource efficiency, and searching for alternative materials are essential, but probably not sufficient to meet demands. There is a need to find new primary deposits. But politicians and business leaders are concerned because deposits, when identified, occur in areas difficult to access, barring modern exploration technology, and requiring huge investment costs. Exploration requires substantial capital, rare expertise, and leading edge technologies in order to secure the lowest extraction costs. GIFT 2015 matched teachers with experts of exploration, extraction, policy making in the field of future mineral resources, including the deep-sea frontier.

The EGU welcomed the teachers and started to bond them with a special guided visit to the Vienna Museum of Natural Sciences on Sunday, 12 April. They then joined all conference participants in the “Ice Breaker Party” at the Austria Center, where the scientific programs took place. Find out more information about EGU 2015 here.

Many of the participating teachers also contributed to the program through hands-on workshops, poster sessions, and other activities. Your correspondent presented in one of the hands-on workshop sessions classroom-based activities about minerals. Participants made models of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron and other molecules using raisins and toothpicks. They shared strategies to teach important minerals properties, such as cleavage and magnetism, in their countries. An anticipated highlight was distributing samples of fluorescent minerals donated by the Sterling Hill Mining Museum in Ogdensburg, NJ, and watching them glow under ultraviolet energy.

Hands-on workshops at the GIFT workshop during the 2015 conference. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Hands-on workshops at the GIFT workshop during the 2015 conference. Credit: Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent for the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter.

Many of the teachers received partial conference expenses through professional societies and other sources. When participants return to their home countries, they are expected to complete an evaluation form to assess this year’s program and provide guidance for next year’s. Each will also make presentations about their EGU experience to teaching colleagues, submit reports and photographs about how GIFT information and resources have been used, and, contribute articles about the GIFT workshop to professional publications aimed at geosciences teachers.

You can learn about past GIFT workshops through the EGU website. Beginning in 2009, EGU has created web-TV presentations, which may be freely downloaded and used in classrooms. To expand the impact and outreach of the programs, the EGU Committee on Education began in 2012 a series of GIFT Distinguished Lectures in several European countries. Leading scientists who have participated as speakers in GIFT workshops during the EGU General Assemblies are supported to provide organized educational event for high school science teachers.

Similar GIFT Workshops are offered at the annual American Geoscience Union meetings held each fall in San Francisco. These are organized by the National Earth Science Teachers Association and the AGU Education Program. Resources from the previous four AGU GIFT workshops are available online.

by Michael J. Passow, Earth Science Correspondent

This article originally appeared in the Newsletter of the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education.

For an electronic subscription to the Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter please e-mail a request to JLRoeder@aol.com. You can also access the Newlsetter via the website of the American Association of Physics Teachers.

The GIFT Workshops are organised by the EGU’s Committee on Education. You can learn more about the GIFT programme and the other educational activities fostered by the Committee on the EGU website.

GeoTalk: Deciphering the mysteries of the Mediterranean Sea with Katrin Schroeder

GeoTalk: Deciphering the mysteries of the Mediterranean Sea with Katrin Schroeder

Geotalk is a regular feature highlighting early career researchers and their work. Following the EGU General Assembly, we spoke to Katrin Schroeder, the winner of a 2015 Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists.

First, could you introduce yourself and tell us a little more about your career path so far

Meet Katrin!

Meet Katrin! Credit: Katrin Schroeder

I am a physical oceanographer with a background in environmental science. I did my studies at the University of Venice(Italy) and in collaboration with the Institute for Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR). I started off working on biogeochemical cycles in coastal waters and then moved to the larger scale and to the physics of ocean dynamics in the open sea, trying also to combine physical and biogeochemical oceanography. In 2006 I started to work at CNR ISMAR in La Spezia, on the shore of the Ligurian Sea, in a beautiful office with sea view, reminding me every morning how lucky I was to have my job. I finally got a permanent position at CNR ISMAR in Venice in 2011. This period was characterized by intense learning, participation to workshops, summer schools and conferences, prolonged visits at the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, writing my PhD thesis and papers, and participating in oceanographic cruises of the Mediterranean Sea, 1-2 months per year. I slowed down this rhythm recently, but just a bit, after the birth of my first son (now 3 years old), and my two twin boys (now 1 year old). I am looking forward to go back out to sea again soon.

What sparked your interest in oceanography?

At the beginning it was more or less by chance that I started to work on the Mediterranean Sea, and became a physical oceanographer, since after several applications to various marine and environmental institutes in 2004 I got my first fellowship at the Unit for Marine Research (ENEA in La Spezia). After my first oceanographic cruise, in 2005, in the Western Mediterranean Sea, I knew that that was “my” job. At that time there was no internet on research vessels and offshore the mobile phones served only to help you to wake up in time for your next shift in the middle of the night (these vessels operate 24/24 hours): you were completely in another dimension for days or weeks, without any contact with the “outside world”, working hard and in close contact with a limited number of persons. For me, that was great. What I really love in my job as a sea-going physical oceanographer is the alternation between “thinking” phases (in the office, in front of a pc) and “operating” phases (the cruise, the pre and post activities).

Much of your research focuses on the Mediterranean Sea, what makes it such an ideal candidate for oceanographic studies?

The Mediterranean has a number of valuable advantages (besides, CNR ISMAR being on its door steps). It is in many ways a miniature ocean and a natural laboratory for climatic studies: it has deep water formation varying on interannual time scales and a well-defined overturning circulation, and there are distinct surface, intermediate and deep water masses circulating between the western and the eastern basin. What makes the Mediterranean particularly useful for climate change studies is that its time scale is much shorter than for the global ocean, with a turnover time of roughly 60 years compared with more than 500 years for the global ocean. Changes can happen faster, on the time scale of a human lifetime.

During EGU 2015, you received the Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists for your work on experimental oceanography, where you have contributed original ideas on the understanding of the formation and spreading of Mediterranean deep waters. Could you tell us a bit more about your research in this area?

In the deep layers of the Western Mediterranean an almost constant trend towards higher salinity and temperature has been observed since the ‘50s. More recent observations evidenced an acceleration of this tendency. An alteration of the water mass vertical distribution, associated with an abrupt temperature and salinity increase has been observed. In particular, since March 2005 large volumes of new bottom water has formed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably this new bottom water is warmer and saltier than the old deep waters so it has become an easily recognized water mass when temperature and salinity profiles are made through the water column. Since its formation, this new bottom water has spread out into the western Mediterranean so that now it forms a bottom layer of warm salty water up to 1000 m thick throughout the western Mediterranean basin. The new bottom water has provided a natural tracer release experiment for understanding how bottom water fills the basin. The processes of deep water formation, the filling of the western Mediterranean with the new deep waters formed in the north, and the mixing between old and new deep waters are keys to understand how the Mediterranean is changing under changing climate conditions. An important open issue is how the old and new deep waters mix, on what time scale and by what processes, and in particular to quantify the role of turbulent mixing in the overall diffuse upwelling, the returning branch of the vertical thermohaline circulation.

The possible impacts these changes could have on a global scale are still an open issue.

oceans

Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (modified by Loic Houpert from Tsimplis et al., 2006): AW=Atlantic Water, LIW=Levantine Intermediate Water, WMDW=Western Mediterranean Deep Water, EMDW=Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water. Credit: Katrin Schroeder

With my team we observed the anomaly thanks to repeated oceanographic cruises in the Western Mediterranean. We started to publish about the deep water formation event in the north-western Mediterranean in 2006 (Schroeder et al., 2006, GRL). The event was extraordinary for its large volume of warmer and thermohaline properties of the deep water produced during the severe winter of 2004/2005. I have explored the causes of this event, tracing its origin back to the Eastern Mediterranean, from where increased amounts of heat and salt were imported to the Western Mediterranean and I have examined with new observations the spreading of the new water as a transient tracer through the western Mediterranean.

How does bottom water form, exactly and how is it different to other water in Mediterranean?

Bottom water forms in some specific regions worldwide, and few of them are also located in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep waters are “formed” (or we should rather say “transformed” from surface and intermediate water masses) where the air temperatures are cold and where the salinity of the surface waters are relatively high. The combinations of salinity and cold temperatures make the water denser and cause it to sink to the bottom. Its formation may occur either in the open ocean by deep convection or on the continental shelves by a process called dense shelf water cascading. In the Mediterranean both phenomena are present: in the Gulf of Lion (north-western Mediterranean Sea), in the Adriatic Sea and in the Aegean Sea. This sites maintain the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation in motion and, ventilating the deep layers, provide fresh oxygen to the deep water ecosystems. The Mediterranean also hosts a surface water mass, which comes directly from the Atlantic Ocean and circulates through the whole basin, gradually increasing its density because of the strong evaporation that takes place in the region. In the Mediterranean intermediate water masses are also formed, with processes that are similar to the bottom water formation, but in different locations and with density characteristics that do not allow these water masses to sink to the very bottom.

Earlier, you mentioned that the Mediterranean is useful for climate change studies due to having a much quicker turnover than the larger oceans. Can you describe an example of just how the study of the Mediterranean has been useful in this way?

The most important example is the in depth investigation of the process of deep water formation, which is an essential component of the global ocean conveyor belt, and sustains the present climatic state. The process happens mostly at high latitudes, but also in the north-western Mediterranean Sea on much smaller scales. Observations of the processes involved in open-ocean deep convection began with the now classical Mediterranean Ocean Convection (MEDOC) experiment in the Gulf of Lion [MEDOC Group, 1970]. With respect to high latitude sites, the Mediterranean site had the advantages of being less expensive to investigate, given an easier access with oceanographic vessels, due to its closeness to the coast and oceanographic institutes, of offering to milder winter conditions (season during which the dense water formation takes place) facilitating operations at sea. It is also very likely that studies about process related to ocean acidification and carbon sequestration as a consequence of dense water formation will be more feasible in the Mediterranean Sea.

What advice do you have for early career scientists on how achieve a good work/life balance?

Well, this is strongly dependent on the specific conditions you have in your life and it depends on your priorities: I have strong support from my family, I have the possibility to have a kindergarten close to our home with an affordable fee (this is the most important thing I must say!), and I have made the choice to let the household behind ….and I do not iron!

Finally, could you tell us a bit about your future research plans?

Staying very general, I am starting to follow a path of a higher interdisciplinary in oceanographic disciplines, trying to enforce the dialogue between us, physical oceanographers, and biological, microbiological and chemical oceanographers, as well as with climatologists and meteorologists.

References

Schroeder K., Gasparini G.P., Tangherlini M., Astraldi M.: Deep and Intermediate Water in the Western Mediterranean under the influence of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: 10.1028/2006GL02712

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