Clear graphics, good message and an awesome sing-along. what more could one ask for? the only message that I would add is the importance of virtual groundwater use in what we decide to consume, especially our food.
Does water fall if no one hears it? It does. Invisible water flows slowly under the ground, in soil and rock, downhill or from wet to dry areas. This groundwater eventually surfaces at rivers, springs, swamps, and other water features. As rivers and lakes get tapped out or polluted, more groundwater is being pumped out for irrigation and industrial uses, hurting the animals groundwater flow sustains. Yet we still know little about how far and fast groundwater flows.
In my team’s work, we trace the flow paths of groundwater in two ways. First, we consider the geometry of the paths groundwater must follow from its origin as rainwater and what that implies about the amount of groundwater that typically flows in or out of regions of different sizes. Second, we simulate groundwater flow in each continent based on detailed surface height maps from satellites. We mapped the likely groundwater flow directions and rates under natural conditions (no pumping). With this baseline, we expect to better determine how groundwater pumping impairs water flows and ecosystems.
One implication of this study has to do with how scientists simulate climate. Models run on computers to forecast weather and project climate changes currently ignore groundwater flow pathways. We find that the amount of water conveyed by groundwater flow is significant over path lengths of up to several tens of kilometers. The resolution of global and regional climate models is now becoming good enough to resolve these flow paths, and we are beginning to explore how such groundwater flow affects cloud and rainfall patterns.
This article is the first in a series of plain language summaries on Water Underground. This article and others will be put through the 5upgoer word processor to test for the 1000 most common words in the English language…almost half words in this article that aren’t this list including importance, groundwater and climate… from the title!)
Active learning in large classrooms is difficult but not impossible – here is one example of an active learning technique developed for small classrooms, the gallery walk, which I have successfully re-purposed for a class of 100 (but I see no real upper limit on class size with the modified version of this activity).
“In Gallery Walk student teams rotate to provide bulleted answers to questions posted on charts arranged around the classroom. After three to five minutes at a chart or ‘station’ the team rotates to the next question. Gallery Walk works best with open ended questions, that is, when a problem, concept, issue, or debate can be analyzed from several different perspectives.” SERC Pedagogy in action
In most large classes in auditoriums, there is not the time or space for students to actually walk around the ‘gallery’. So instead I bring the ‘gallery’ of four provocative questions to groups of students on clipboards that are rotated around the classroom :
- the class is split into four quadrants which are further divided into four groups (so ~5 people per group for a class of 100). Each group starts with a clipboard with one of the four questions and the four groups in the each quadrant should have the four different questions (good to check before starting).
- Students are given 5-10 minutes to respond to the question on their clipboards and then clipboards are rotated until each group has answered each question. Students can constructively respond to previous groups answers to the same question.
- After four rotations each group should have the question they started with and I ask a few groups to report out a summary to class which I synthesize on the board. In my case we end the activity with a vote of the ‘world’s biggest water problem’.
I find this an excellent way to start and/or end a term. In my case I teach a rather technical undergraduate engineering class about hydrology and water resources – this is an excellent tool to encourage students to think very broadly and creatively about the topic before and/or after we learn technical details.
This activity was inspired by conversations at the ‘Cutting Edge’ Early Career Geoscientist workshop in June 2012 College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. The workshop is sponsored by the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) with funding provided by the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education. I thank the workshop leaders, NAGT and NSF for this opportunity and encourage other early career geoscientists to check out future workshops.
What paper inspired you the most in 2013? The Early Career Hydrogeologists’ Network (ECHN) of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) has announced a new contest: ‘2013 Coolest Paper of the Year’ award (described in this Hydrogeology Journal editorial).
I nominated Fan et al (Science, 2013) who completed a Herculean effort to map the depth to the water table globally for the first time. The observations combined with the modeling are an important new database for global models that that reveals where shallow groundwater is likely important to surface water and agriculture.
What paper are you going to nominate? The paper can be from any peer-reviewed journal and by any author. The only criterion: it needs to be about hydrogeology and you need to be an early career hydrogeologist (post-graduate student or in the early years of professional work) to vote. Nominating closes on March 31st so please nominate right here:
Fan, Y., H. Li, G. Miguez-Macho (2013) Global patterns of groundwater table depth, Science, 339 (6122): 940-943, doi: 10.1126/science.1229881
This term I am co-teaching a graduate class in advanced groundwater hydrology with Grant Ferguson (University of Saskatchewan) and Steve Loheide (University of Wisconsin – Madison). In co-developing and co-delivering this course we have learned a lot – I’ll start here with our initial motivations and write later about our pedagogic decisions, software tools and reflections after the course. It is mostly win-win for students and professors, but I’ll describe some of the disadvantages below.
Instead of being a MOOC, the course is a SPOC – a small, private, online classroom. Students and professors simultaneously meet in real classrooms at each university and connect as a video conference. Students collaborate on projects across universities and each professor leads instruction for part of the term and participates in all classes. We use a variety of software tools for blended learning including polling (socrative), content management (wikispaces), and video conferencing (microsoft lync).
Students are exposed to topics, tools and skills they would never learn in a regular classroom. Probably most importantly, students learn about varied topics that would not normally be covered at their university. One idea that has worked well is focusing on cutting-edge research ideas and techniques including research ugly babies that are not often discussed in the literature. They learn to collaborate internationally using virtual tools. And they develop an international professional network spanning multiple universities.
A number of students have said ‘wow, it’s like three courses in one!’ and as instructors we have noticed there is not lull in the middle or end of term where students and/or instructors are tired of the course, tired of each other, or just tired. Instead it is just on to the next topic and instructor.
Many of the same advantages are true for the instructors: we learn new ideas from the other instructors, we collaborate internationally in co-developing and co-teaching this course and we expand and enrich our professional network. And we share the teaching load.
You can probably guess the two main disadvantages: the software tools are not perfect and interaction between real classrooms can be stilted. Both are true and we were very honest and clear about this with students from the start:
Almost every class there has been a minor glitch with the audio or video but it’s always been minor problem with a reasonable solution – with the myriad of ways to connect today there are many plan B options.
During our weekly class time, interaction between individual students in different real classrooms is difficult. During class time, most of the interactions are between students and the lead instructor or between students in the same real classroom during an active learning activity. But outside of class time, students interact via discussion on the content management system and collaborate on projects using skype, google chat etc.
So far, co-teaching a blended graduate class across universities has been a win-win for students and professors – I’d be happy to hear about other SPOC classes.
My reason to blog is really quite simple: to share what doesn’t currently fit into peer-reviewed articles. I will write about groundwater as well as how I research, teach, supervise and collaborate. In short I hope to cover the whole kit and caboodle of academia, from the underground perspective of groundwater.
Why read this blog? Time is precious so only read on if you are interested and/or passionate about…
– groundwater science, engineering, management and policy
-active learning of science and engineering at universities and colleges
-supervising and mentoring students compassionately and effectively
So, who might want to read this blog?
-environmental and water policy makers and managers – I hope to explain interesting, new groundwater science in plain language
-groundwater enthusiasts and nerds
-fellow scientists and grad students
-fellow teachers (outreach of our teaching ideas and experience)
My overall goals as a prof are also simple:
-nudge the world towards more sustainable groundwater use and learn about groundwater
-teach hydrology interactively and critically
-supervise and mentor students compassionately and effectively
So I hope this blog might help with these goals. Help me make this an interesting place to read about groundwater and academia – I encourage contributions from collaborators, students, postdocs. Or I’d love to hear ideas for blog entries – may they be weird, interesting or useful.