WaterUnderground

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Best groundwater song ever? “Once in a Lifetime” by the Talking Heads?

Best groundwater song ever? “Once in a Lifetime” by the Talking Heads?

Kevin Befus
Contributed by Kevin Befus, University of Austin – Texas
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If there has ever been a song for hydrogeologists, “Once in a Lifetime” by the Talking Heads is the best. Here’s why I have taken this song on as my hydrogeologic theme song.

But first, here is a link to the music video, in all of its early 1980’s glory:

Music is great because the listener can interpret the music and lyrics with their biases. My bias in this song is not about the drudgery of life (1) . It is about water which is everywhere in this song, and maybe that means we humans see water as mundane, everywhere and maybe a bit menacing. I fully encourage you to evaluate your life through this song, but let’s get on to the hydrogeology!

Where does this song get the hydrogeology right? I was surprised.
“Water flowing underground” – groundwater moves and is not still (but can be super slow), except maybe in stagnation points that may also be dynamic (2).

“same as it ever was” – groundwater responds over long time scales, but may not always be in the same place (3) . Even still, water is eventually renewed and continues on its many paths through the water cycle, same as it ever was.

“Into the blue again” – back to the ocean, with an average retreat of 4000 yrs (4) ; shout out to the submarine groundwater discharge community (5)!

“After the money’s gone” – water can be something we retreat to as a source of comfort or leisure, but here’s an idea: what do we do with water problems when the money is gone? How do economics affect water resources? Do we turn off the pumps and let water flow to the blue again, L.A. (6)?

“Water dissolving and water removing” – shout out to hydrogeochemists and transport modelers (7) ; yes, you, Chebotarev (8)!

“There is water at the bottom of the ocean…remove the water from the bottom of the ocean” – there sure is, and more than we thought (9)! Maybe a water resource that will be tapped more and more.

“Under the rocks and stones” – well, there is water under rocks and stones, but also inside, brushing but sadly missing porosity and saturation. This doesn’t mean I don’t like this lyric.

“Silent water” – if there is any water on Earth that is silent (and that is unlikely, depending on the definition of what sound is), groundwater would be a good place to imagine a silent water droplet.

The underlying theme of passing time is what really gets me. Once in a lifetime, this water is flowing underground. What a great way to introduce the timescales of groundwater flow! Or, even begin a lesson on groundwater, ranging from basics to interactions at the coast or human impacts? How precious is this water if it can only be replenished once in a lifetime?

May we someday not have to say to ourselves, “my god, what have we done?”

1. http://www.allmusic.com/song/once-in-a-lifetime-mt0011967560
2. Gomez, J. D., and J. L. Wilson (2013), Age distributions and dynamically changing hydrologic systems: Exploring topography-driven flow, Water Resour. Res., 49(3), 1503-1522.
3. Gleeson, T., Y. Wada, M. F. Bierkens, and L. P. van Beek (2012), Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint, Nature, 488(7410), 197-200, doi: 10.1038/nature11295.
4. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth540/content/c3_p7.html
5. Burnett, W. C., H. Bokuniewicz, M. Huettel, W. S. Moore, and M. Taniguchi (2003), Groundwater and pore water inputs to the coastal zone, Biogeochemistry, 66(1-2), 3-33, doi: 10.1023/B:BIOG.0000006066.21240.53.
6. http://www.wrd.org/engineering/seawater-intrusion-los-angeles.php
7. http://ponce.sdsu.edu/the_salinity_of_groundwaters.html
8. Chebotarev, I. I. 1955. Metamorphism of natural waters in the crust of weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 8, 22-48, 137-170, 198-212
9. Post, V. E. A., J. Groen, H. Kooi, M. Person, S. Ge, and W. M. Edmunds (2013), Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon, Nature, 504(7478), 71-78, doi: 10.1038/nature12858.

The importance of groundwater for climate models

The importance of groundwater for climate models

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Contributed by Nir Krakauer nkrakauer@ccny.cuny.edu

Does water fall if no one hears it? It does. Invisible water flows slowly under the ground, in soil and rock, downhill or from wet to dry areas. This groundwater eventually surfaces at rivers, springs, swamps, and other water features. As rivers and lakes get tapped out or polluted, more groundwater is being pumped out for irrigation and industrial uses, hurting the animals groundwater flow sustains.[1] Yet we still know little about how far and fast groundwater flows.

In my team’s work, we trace the flow paths of groundwater in two ways. First, we consider the geometry of the paths groundwater must follow from its origin as rainwater and what that implies about the amount of groundwater that typically flows in or out of regions of different sizes. Second, we simulate groundwater flow in each continent based on detailed surface height maps from satellites. We mapped the likely groundwater flow directions and rates under natural conditions (no pumping). With this baseline, we expect to better determine how groundwater pumping impairs water flows and ecosystems.

One implication of this study has to do with how scientists simulate climate. Models run on computers to forecast weather and project climate changes currently ignore groundwater flow pathways. We find that the amount of water conveyed by groundwater flow is significant over path lengths of up to several tens of kilometers. The resolution of global and regional climate models is now becoming good enough to resolve these flow paths, and we are beginning to explore how such groundwater flow affects cloud and rainfall patterns.

This article is the first in a series of plain language summaries on Water Underground. This article and others will be put through the 5upgoer word processor to test for the 1000 most common words in the English language…almost half words in this article that aren’t this list including importance, groundwater and climate… from the title!)

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