GeoLog

sedimentology

Imaggeo on Mondays: Viñales Valley

Imaggeo on Mondays: Viñales Valley

From last week’s unusual desert landscape to this week’s lush valley in Cuba…

The picture shows the Vinales Valley, a karstic depression with mogotes in western Cuba. Karst is the general term for landscapes formed when limestone is disolved by carbonic acid, in rain water. This leads, in particular, to the formation of an underground network of caves and rivers.

In the tropics, due to the heavy rains, the dissolution is fast. The ground collapses above the caves and the karst landscape may evolve to mogotes, which are isolated and steep-sided limestone hills; visible in this week’s featured image. Mogotes can also be found in Eastern Asia, for instance in Halong Bay (Vietnam) or Bohol Island (‘Chocolate Hills’) in the Philipines.

By Alexis Merlaud, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Sedimentary record of catastrophic floods in the Atacama desert

Imaggeo on Mondays: Sedimentary record of catastrophic floods in the Atacama desert

Despite being one of the driest regions on Earth, the Atacama desert is no stranger to catastrophic flood events. Today’s post highlights how the sands, clays and muds left behind once the flood waters recede can hold the key to understanding this natural hazard.

During the severe rains that occurred between May 12 and 13, 2017 in the Atacama Region (Northern Chile) the usually dry Copiapó River experienced a fast increase in its runoff. It caused the historic center of the city of Copiapó to flood and resulted in thousands of affected buildings including the University of Atacama.

The city of Copiapó (~160,000 inhabitants) is the administrative capital of this Chilean Region and is built on the Copiapó River alluvial plain. As a result, and despite being located in one of the driest deserts of the world, it has been flooded several times during the 19th and 20th century. Floods back in 2015 were among the worst recorded.

The effects of the most recent events are, luckily, significantly milder than those of 2015 as no casualties occurred. However, more than 2,000 houses are affected and hundreds have been completely lost.

During this last event, the water height reached 75 cm over the river margins. Nearby streets where filled with torrents of mud- and sand-laden waters, with plant debris caught up in the mix too. Once the waters receded, a thick bed of randomly assorted grains of sand  was deposited over the river banks and urbanized areas.

Frozen in the body of the bed, the sand grains developed different forms and structures. A layer of only the finest grained sediments, silts and clays, bears the hallmark of the final stages of the flooding. As water speeds decrease, the finest particles are able to drop out of the water and settle over the coarser particles. Finally, a water saturated layer of mud, only a few centimeters thick, blanketed the sands, preserving the sand structures in 3D.

The presence of these unusual and enigmatic muddy bedforms has been scarcely described in the scientific literature. A new study and detailed analysis of the structures will help better understand the sedimentary record of catastrophic flooding and the occurrence of high-energy out-of-channel deposits in the geological record.

By Manuel Abad and Tatiana Izquierdo, Universidad de Atacama (Chile)

 

Imaggeo on Mondays: Escullos

Imaggeo on Mondays: Escullos

This picture shows a Quaternary aeolianite fossil dune at the Escullos beach, in the Nature Reserve of Cabo de Gata (Almeria, Spain). Originally a soft accumulation of sand grains, shaped by the wind into large mounds and ridges, the dunes eventually turn into rock. As the sediments compact under their own pressure and expel any moisture and fluids retained within them, they become lithified and become the structure seen in this week’s Imaggeo image. This particular example is a richly fossilifeorous and contains abundant cidaroid spines. Cidaroids are primitive forms of sea urchins, but unlike the more familiar, well rounded spike covered sea hedgehogs, their spikes are much more separated and sparse.

A present day cidaroid. Note the sparse and relatively flat spines. Credit, Alicia Morugán.

A present day cidaroid. Note the sparse and relatively flat spines. Credit, Alicia Morugán.

Almeria is the eastern most province of Andalucia, located in South East Spain. Almeria province is geologically very interesting as the relationships between tectonics, sedimentary geology and geomorphology are evident throughout the landscape. The province lies within the Baetic Cordillera, an Alpine mountain chain resulting from the collision of the micro-Iberian and African plate from Late Mesozoic to Middle Cenozoic times. This characteristic makes it very tectonically active. Furthermore, Almeria province has the driest climate in Europe, resulting in mean annual precipitation of less than 300 mm. In terms of geomorphology, quaternary alluvial fans are the most common structure in the region. Geologically speaking, aeolianite rocks are the most common rock in the region. A final thanks: thanks Maria Burguet for support editing the picture.

By Alicia Morugán, Universitat de València, València, Spain

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

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