GeoLog

Greenland

August GeoRoundUp: the best of the Earth sciences from around the web

August GeoRoundUp: the best of the Earth sciences from around the web

Drawing inspiration from popular stories on our social media channels, as well as unique and quirky research news, this monthly column aims to bring you the best of the Earth and planetary sciences from around the web.

Major Stories

On August 25th Hurricane Harvey made landfall along the southern coast of the U.S.A, bringing record breaking rainfall, widespread flooding and a natural disaster on a scale not seen in the country for a long time. In fact, it’s the first time since 2005 a major hurricane has threatened mainland U.S.A. – a record long period.

But Harvey’s story began long before it brought destruction to Texas and Louisiana.

On August 17th,the National Space Agency (NASA) satellite’s first spotted a tropical depression forming off the coast of the Lesser Antilles. From there the storm moved into the eastern Caribbean and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Harvey where it already started dropping very heavy rainfall. By August 21st, it had fragmented into disorganised thunderstorms and was spotted near Honduras, where heavy local rainfall and gusty winds were predicted.

Over the next few days the remnants of the storm travelled westwards towards Nicaragua, Honduras, Belize and the Yucatan Peninsula. Forecasters predicted that, owing to warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico and favorable vertical wind shear, there was a high chance the system could reform once it moved into the Bay of Campeche (in the southern area of the Gulf of Mexico) on August 23rd. By August 24th data acquired with NASA satellites showed Harvey had began to intensify and reorganise. Heavy rainfall was found in the system.

Harvey continued to strengthen as it traveled across the Gulf of Mexico and weather warnings were issued for the central coast of Texas. Citizens were told to expect life-threatening storm surges and freshwater flooding. On August 25th, Harvey was upgraded to a devastating Category 4 hurricane, when sustained wind speeds topped 215 kph.

Since making landfall on Friday and stalling over Texas (Louisiana is also affected) – despite being downgraded to a tropical storm as it weakened – it has broken records of it’s own. “No hurricane, typhoon, or tropical storm, in all of recorded history, has dropped as much water on a single major city as Hurricane Harvey is in the process of doing right now in Houston (Texas)”, reports Forbes. In fact, the National Weather Service had to update the colour charts on their graphics in order to effectively map it. This visualisation maps Harvey’s destructive path through Texas.

A snaptshot from the tweet by the official Twitter account for NOAA’s National Weather Service.

So far the death toll is reported to be between 15 to 23 people, with the Houston Police Chief saying 30,000 people are expected to need temporary shelter and 2,000 people in the city had to be rescued by emergency services (figures correct at time of writing).

Many factors contributed toward making Hurricane Harvey so destructive. “The steering currents that would normally lift it out of that region aren’t there,” J. Marshall Shepherd, director of the atmospheric sciences program at the University of Georgia, told the New York Times. The storm surge has blocked much of the drainage which would take rainfall away from inland areas. And while it isn’t possible to say climate change caused the hurricane, “it has contributed to making it worse”, says Michael E Mann. The director of the Earth System Science Center at Pennsylvania State University argues that rising sea levels and ocean water temperatures in the region (brought about by climate change) contributed to greater rainfall and flooding.

A man carries his cattle on his shoulder as he moves to safer ground at Topa village in Saptari. Credit: The Guardian.

While all eyes are on Houston, India, Bangladesh and Nepal are also suffering the consequences of devastating flooding brought about a strong monsoon. The United Nations estimates that 41 million people are affected by the disaster across the three countires. Over 1200 people are reported dead. Authorities are stuggling with the scale of the humanitarian crisis: “Their most urgent concern is to accessing safe water and sanitation facilities,” the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said earlier this week, citing national authorities. And its not only people at risk. Indian authorities reported large swathes of a famous wildlife reserve park have been destroyed. In Mumbai, the downpour caused a building to collapse killing 12 people and up to 25 more are feared trapped.Photo galleries give a sense of the scale of the disaster.

Districts affected by flooding. Credit: Guardian graphic | Source: ReliefWeb. Data as of 29 August 2017

What you might have missed

In fact, it’s highly unlikely you missed the coverage of this month’s total solar eclipse over much of Northern America. But on account of it being the second biggest story this month, we felt it couldn’t be left out of the round-up. We particularly like this photo gallery which boasts some spectacular images of the astronomical event.

This composite image, made from seven frames, shows the International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 near Banner, Wyoming. Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

Since the end of July, wildfires have been raging in southwest Greenland. While small scale fires are not unheard of on the island otherwise known for its thick ice cap and deep fjords, the fires this month are estimated to extend over 1,200 hectares. What started the fires remains unknown, as do the fuel sources and the long-term impacts of the burn.

The U.S.A’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration highlighted that the fires are a source of sooty “black carbon”. As the ash falls on the pristine white ice sheet, it turns the surface black, which can make it melt faster. Greenland police recently reported that unexpected rain haf all but extinguished the massive fires; though the situation continues to be monitored, as smouldering patches run the risk of reigniting the flames.

 

 

 

Links we liked

The EGU story

Do you enjoy the EGU’s annual General Assembly but wish you could play a more active role in shaping the scientific programme? Now is your chance! Help shape the scientific programme of EGU 2018.

From today, until 8 Sep 2017, you can suggest:

  • Sessions (with conveners and description), or;
  • Modifications to the existing skeleton programme sessions
  • NEW! Suggestions for Short courses (SC) will also take place during this period
  • From now until 18 January 2018, propose Townhall and splinter meetings

And don’t forget! To stay abreast of all the EGU’s events and activities, from highlighting papers published in our open access journals to providing news relating to EGU’s scientific divisions and meetings, including the General Assembly, subscribe to receive our monthly newsletter.

 

The best of Imaggeo in 2016: in pictures

The best of Imaggeo in 2016: in pictures

Imaggeo, our open access image repository, is packed with beautiful images showcasing the best of the Earth, space and planetary sciences. Throughout the year we use the photographs submitted to the repository to illustrate our social media and blog posts.

For the past few years we’ve celebrated the end of the year by rounding-up some of the best Imaggeo images. But it’s no easy task to pick which of the featured images are the best! Instead, we turned the job over to you!  We compiled a Facebook album which included all the images we’ve used  as header images across our social media channels and on Imaggeo on Mondays blog post in 2016 an asked you to vote for your favourites.

Today’s blog post rounds-up the best 12 images of Imaggeo in 2016, as chosen by you, our readers.

Of course, these are only a few of the very special images we highlighted in 2016, but take a look at our image repository, Imaggeo, for many other spectacular geo-themed pictures, including the winning images of the 2016 Photo Contest. The competition will be running again this year, so if you’ve got a flare for photography or have managed to capture a unique field work moment, consider uploading your images to Imaggeo and entering the 2017 Photo Contest.

Blue Svartisen . Credit: Kay Helfricht (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

When you think of a glacier the image you likely conjure up in your mind is that of bright white, icy body. So why do some glaciers, like Engabreen, a glacier in Norway, sometimes appear blue? Is it a trick of the light or some other phenomenon which causes this glacier to look so unusual?  You can learn all about it in this October post over on GeoLog.

 

‘There is never enough time to count all the stars that you want.’ . Credit: Vytas Huth (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu). The centre of the Milky Way taken near Krakow am See, Germany. Some of the least light-polluted atmosphere of the northern german lowlands.

Among the winning images of our annual photo contest was a stunning night-sky panorama by Vytas Huth; we aren’t surprised it has been chosen as one of the most popular images of 2016 too. In this post, Vytas describes how he captured the image and how the remote location in Southern Germany is one of the few (in Europe) where it is still possible to, clearly, image the Milk Way.

 

“Above the foggy strip, this white arch was shining, covering one third of the visible sky in the direction of the ship's bow,” he explains. “It was a so-called white, or fog rainbow, which appears on the fog droplets, which are much smaller then rain droplets and cause different optic effects, which is a reason of its white colour.”

Gateway to the Arctic . Credit: Mikhail Varentsov (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

“Above the foggy strip, this white arch was shining, covering one third of the visible sky in the direction of the ship’s bow,” describes Mikhail Varentsov, a climate and meteorology expert from the University of Moscow. “It was a so-called white, or fog rainbow, which appears on the fog droplets, which are much smaller then rain droplets and cause different optic effects, which is a reason of its white colour.” Mikhail captured the white rainbow while aboard the Akademik Tryoshnikov research vessel during its scientific cruise to study the effects of climate change on the Arctic.

 

History. Credit: Florian Fuchs (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The header image, History by Florian Fuchs, we used across our social media channels was popular with our Facebook followers, who chose it as one of the best of this year. The picture features La Tarta del Teide – a stratigraphic section through volcanic deposits of the Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands.

 

Find a new way . Credit: Wolfgang Fraedrich (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Lavas erupted into river waters, and as a result cooled very quickly, can give rise to fractures in volcanic rocks. They form prismatic structures which can be arranged in all kinds of patterns: horizontally (locally known as the woodpile), slightly arching (the harp) and in a radial configuration known as the rosette. The most common configuration is the ‘organ pile’ where vertical fractures form. These impressive structures are seen in the walls of the Gole dell ‘Alcantara, a system of gorges formed 8,000 years ago in the course of the river Alcantara in eastern Sicily.

 

Home Sweet Home . Credit: André Nuber (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Can you imagine camping atop some of the highest mountains in Europe and waking up to a view of snowcapped peaks, deep valleys and endless blue skies? This paints an idyllic picture; field work definitely takes Earth scientists to some of the most beautiful corners of the planet.

 

Isolated Storm . Credit: Peter Huber (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

In November 2016 we featured this photograph of an isolated thunderstorm in the Weinviertel in April. The view is towards the Lower Carpathian Mountains and Bratislava about 50 kilometers from Vienna. Why do storms and isolated thunderstorms form? Find out in this post.

 

Glacial erratic rocks . Credit: Yuval Sadeh (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

As glaciers move, they accumulate debris underneath their surface. As the vast frozen rivers advance, they carry the debris, which can range from pebble-sized rocks through to house-sized boulders, along with it. As the climate in the Yosemite region began to warm as the ice age came to an end, the glaciers slowly melted. Once all the ice was gone, the rocks and boulders, known as glacial erratics, were left behind.

 

Snow and ash in Iceland . Credit: Daniel Garcia Castellanos (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Icelandic snow-capped peaks are also sprinkled by a light dusting of volcanic ash in this photograph. Dive into this March 2016 post to find out the source of the ash and more detail about the striking peak.

 

Living Flows . Credit: Marc Girons Lopez (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

There are handful true wildernesses left on the planet. Only a few, far flung corners, of the globe remain truly remote and unspoilt. To explore and experience untouched landscapes you might find yourself making the journey to the dunes in Sossuvlei in Namibia, or to the salty plain of the Salar Uyuni in Bolivia. But it’s not necessary to travel so far to discover an area where humans have, so far, left little mark. One of the last wilds is right here in Europe, in the northern territories of Sweden. This spectacular photograph of the Laitaure Delta is brought to you by Marc Girons Lopez, one of the winners of the 2016 edition of the EGU’s Photo Contest!

 


The power of ice. Credit: Romain Schläppy, (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

The January 2016 header image across our social media was The Power of Ice, by Romain Schlappy. This vivid picture was captured from a helicopter by Romain Schläppy during a field trip in September 2011. You can learn more about this image by reading a previous imaggeo on mondays post.

 

Sea of Clouds over Uummannaq Fjord. Credit: Tun Jan Young (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The current header image, Sea of Clouds over Uummannaq Fjord by Tun Jan Young, is also a hit with our followers and the final most popular image from Imaggeo in 2016. A sudden change of pressure system caused clouds to form on the surface of the Uummannaq Fjord, Northwestern Greenland, shrouding the environment in mystery.

 

If you pre-register for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 22 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

 

Imaggeo on Mondays: Moving images – Photo Contest 2016

Since 2010, the European Geosciences Union (EGU) has been holding an annual photo competition and exhibit in association with its General Assembly and with Imaggeo – the EGU’s open access image repository.

In addition to the still photographs, imaggeo also accepts moving images – short videos – which are also a part of the annual photo contest. However, 20 or more images have to be submitted to the moving image competition for an award to be granted by the judges.

This year saw seven interesting, beautiful and informative moving images entered into the competition. Despite the entries not meeting the required number of submissions for the best moving image prize to be awarded, three were highly ranked by the photo contest judges. We showcase them in today’s imaggeo on Mondays post and hope they serves as inspiration to encourage you to take short clips for submission to the imaggeo database in the future!


Aerial footage of an explosion at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala. Credit: Felix von Aulock (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

During a flight over the Caliente dome of Santiaguito volcano to collect images for photogrammetry, this explosion happened. At this distance, you can clearly see the faults along which the explosion initiates, although the little unmanned aerial vehicle is shaken quite a bit by the blast.


Undulatus asperitus clouds over Disko Bay, West Greenland. Credit: Laurence Dyke(distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Timelapse video of Undulatus asperitus clouds over Disko Bay, West Greenland. This rare formation appeared in mid-August at the tail end of a large storm system that brought strong winds and exceptional rainfall. The texture of the cloud base is caused by turbulence as the storm passed over the Greenland Ice Sheet. The status of Undulatus asperitus is currently being reviewed by the World Meteorological Organisation. If accepted, it will be the first new cloud type since 1951. Camera and settings: Sony PMW-EX1, interval recording mode, 1 fps, 1080p. Music: Tycho – A Walk.

Lahar front at Semeru volcano, Indonesia. Credit: Franck Lavigne (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Progression of the 19 January 2002 lahar front in the Curah Lengkong river, Semeru volcano, Indonesia. Channel is 25 m across. For further information, please contact me (franck.lavigne@univ-paris1.fr)

 

Imaggeo on Mondays: Sunset over the Labrador Sea

Ruby skies and calm waters are the backdrop for this week’s Imaggeo image – one of the ten finalist images in this year’s EGU Photo contest.

 Sunset over the Labrador Sea. Credit: Christof Pearce (distributed via  imaggeo.egu.eu)

Sunset over the Labrador Sea. Credit: Christof Pearce (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

“I took the picture while on a scientific cruise in West Greenland in 2013,” explains Christof Pearce, a postdoctoral researcher at Stockholm University. “We spent most of the time inside the fjord systems around the Greenland capital, Nuuk, but this specific day we were outside on the shelf in the open Labrador Sea. The black dot on the horizon toward the right of the image is a massive iceberg floating in the distance.”

Pearce took part in a research cruise which aimed to obtain high-resolution marine sedimentary records, which would shed light on the geology and past climate of Greenland during the Holocene, the epoch which began 11,700 years ago and continues to the present day.

A total of 12 scientists and students took part in the Danish-Greenlandic-Canadian research cruise in the Godthåbsfjord complex and on the West Greenland shelf. By acquiring cores of the sediments at the bottom of the sea floor, the research team would be able to gather information such as sediment lithology, stable isotopes preserved in fossil foraminifera – sea fairing little creatures – which can yield information about past climates, amongst other data. One of the main research aims was to learn more about the rate at which the Greenland Ice Sheet melted during the Holocene and how this affected local climate conditions and the wider climate system.

“The picture was taken approximately 25 kilometres off the shore of west Greenland coast. In this region the water depth is ca. 500 meters,” describes Pearce. “At this location we deployed a so-called gravity corer and took a 6 meter long sediment core from the ocean floor. Based on radiocarbon measurements – by measuring how much carbon 14 is left in a sample, the age of the sampled units can be known – we now know that these 6 meters correspond to approximately 12000 years of sedimentation, and thus it captures a history of climate and oceanography from the last ice age all the way to present day.”

 

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Follow

Get every new post on this blog delivered to your Inbox.

Join other followers: