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Imaggeo on Mondays: An explosive cloud

Imaggeo on Mondays: An explosive cloud

One of the world’s most volcanically active regions is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. It is the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Okhotsk microplate (belonging to the large North America Plate) which drives the volcanic and seismic hazard in this remote area. The surface expression of the subduction zone is the 2100 km long Kuril-Kamchatka volcanic arc: a chain of volcanic islands and mountains which form as a result of the sinking of a tectonic plate beneath another.  The arc extends from Hokkaido in Japan, across the Kamchatka Peninsula, through to the Commander Islands (Russia) to the Northwest. It is estimated that the Pacific Plate is moving towards the Okhotsk microplate at a rate of approximately 79mm per year, with variations in speed along the arc.

There are over 100 active volcanoes along the arc. Eruptions began during the late Pleistocene, some 126,000 years ago at a time when mammoths still roamed the vast northern frozen landscapes and the first modern humans walked the Earth.

Many of the volcanoes in the region continue to be active today. Amongst them is Karymsky volcano, the focus of this week’s Imaggeo on Mondays image. Towering in excess of 1500 m above sea level (a.s.l), the volcano is composed of layers of hardened lava and the deposits of scorching and fast moving clouds of volcanic debris knows as pyroclastic flows. You can see some careering down the flanks of the volcano in this image of the July 2004 eruption. The eruptive column is the result of a

“strong Vulcanian-type explosion, with the cloud quickly rising more than 1 km above the vent. The final height of the eruption cloud was approximately 3 km and in the image you can clearly see massive ballistic fallout from multiple hot avalanches on the volcanoes slopes,”

explains Alexander Belousov, a Senior Researcher at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Russia and author of this week’s photograph.

 

USGS map of the Kuril-Kamchatka trench, showing earthquake locations and depth contours on downgoing slab. Credit: USGS, USGS summary of the 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake, via Wikimedia Commons.

USGS map of the Kuril-Kamchatka trench, showing earthquake locations and depth contours on downgoing slab. Credit: USGS, USGS summary of the 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake, via Wikimedia Commons.

If you pre-register for the 2015 General Assembly (Vienna, 12 – 17 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: A Patagonia landscape dominated by volcanoes

Patagonia Landscape. Credit: Lucien von Gunten (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Patagonia Landscape. Credit: Lucien von Gunten (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Imagine a torrent of hot and cold water, laden with rock fragments, ash and other debris hurtling down a river valley: this is a lahar. A by-product of eruptions of tall, steep-sided stratovolcanoes, lahars, are often triggered by the quick melting of snow caps and glaciers atop high volcanic peaks.

The history of the Ibañes River and its valley, in southern Chile, are dominated by their proximity to Hudson volcano (or Cerro Hudson, as it is known locally). Located in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, the volcano has an unsettling history of at least 12 eruptions in the last 11,000 years. That equates to a major eruption every 3,800 years or so! The volcano has a circular caldera, home to a small glacier and is neighboured by the larger Huemules glacier.

One of the most significant eruptions occurred in 1991. It is thought to be one of the largest eruptions, by volume, of the 20th Century. At its peak, the eruption produced an ash plume thought to be in excess of 17km high, with ash being deposited as far away as the Falkland Islands. The initial eruptive phase was highly explosive. Known as phreatomagmatic eruption, hot and gas rich magma mixed with ice and water from the glacier on the summit of Mt. Hudson. As the eruption progressed, a period of sustained melting of both the caldera glacier and Huemules glacier began. The result of this was a 12 hour period of persistent lahar generation, with volcanic debris laden torrents racing down the Ibañes valley and its neighbours.

Fast forward to 2009 and the effects of the eruption of 1991 are still visible in the Patagonian Landscape. Lucien von Gunten photographed the inhospitable ‘Bosque Muerto’ (Dead Forest), in the Ibañes valley. The accumulation of the lahar deposits and the ash fall from the eruptive column clogged up the Ibañes river and valley killing a large proportion of the local flora and fauna. The ‘Bosque Muerto’ remains a stark reminder of the devastating effects of the 1991 eruption.

Reference

David J. Kratzmann, Steven N. Carey, Julie Fero, Roberto A. Scasso, Jose-Antonio Naranjo, Simulations of tephra dispersal from the 1991 explosive eruptions of Hudson volcano, Chile, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 190, Issues 3–4, 20 February 2010, Pages 337-352

 

If you pre-register for the 2015 General Assembly (Vienna, 12 – 17 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: High altitude glacier monitoring

What a place to work: Spectacular views from the top of the rugged and icy peaks of Tien Shan mountain range. The desire to better understanding global climate change took Leo Sold to this remote area of Central Asia. The frozen slopes of ice and snow in today’s Imaggeo on Mondays photograph hold some of the keys to understanding how the glaciers in this remote region are being affected by a warming climate.

High altitude glacier monitoring Credit: Leo Sold (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

High altitude glacier monitoring Credit: Leo Sold (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Glacier changes are known to be excellent indicators of climatic change and are therefore monitored around the world. However, some regions have a much higher coverage of measurements than other, often remote areas. Additionally, long time-series of glacier measurements are rare even on the global scale but are indispensable for a sound data basis to study future glacier changes. Thus, having a long-term measurement series in a region like the Tien Shan is a real asset for the work of glaciologists. Central Asia has a long tradition of glacier monitoring but unfortunately many ongoing monitoring programs were interrupted in the mid-1990s after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although the suspended time-series already provide a great source of information, their continuation is fundamental for conducting future studies on Central Asian glaciers.

This image was taken in summer 2013 on the Suek Zapadniy glacier located in the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan.Because snow-covered crevasses cannot always be identified at the snow surface the two researchers are roped up while taking snow depth measurements at 4500m above sea level. The monitoring of Suek Zapadniy glacier is part of the wider CATCOS project (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems), which aims at improving the coverage with climate-related observations in areas were measurements are rare. It is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and is coordinated by the Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss). Within this project, the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and the WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service) re-established a glacier monitoring programme on multiple glaciers in the Tien Shan and Pamir range in Kyrgyzstan, in close collaboration with the GFZ Potsdam (German Research Center for Geoscience, Potsdam), leading the CAWa Project (Central Asian Waters), and the Central-Asian Institute for Applied Geoscience (CAIAG) located in Kyrgyzstan. Notably, the project also focuses on capacity building – meaning, field campaigns involve on-site training of researchers in Kyrgyzstan and Switzerland.

The subset of glaciers chosen for the monitoring program is based on the availability of previous or historical data, the accessibility, and their distribution across the region. Annual mass balance measurements have been carried out since the summer of 2010. Their aim is to establish the difference between the amount of snow that is accumulated on the glacier during winter and the amount of ice melted during the summer months. Integrated over the entire glacier area, this provides a measure for the mass change of a glacier and, thus, for its response to climate changes. In the low-altitude areas of a glacier where summer melting exceeds the quantity of snow accumulated in winter, mass balance measurements involve drilling and maintenance of ablation stakes. These stakes are commonly made of plastic and are inserted into the glacier at a known depth, providing a bench mark against which the glacier thickness changes can be measured. In high altitudes snow can outlast the entire year, allowing the glacier to gain mass. The accumulation is measured as snow depth and its density by means of digging snow pits. Together, ablation and accumulation measurements provide the glacier mass balance. Since 2010 Suek Zapadniy glacier loses 0.4m water equivalent each year, referring to the water level if snow and ice was melted and distributed over the glacier.

“Ideally, summer measurements at the end of the hydrological year would be complemented by winter accumulation measurements in spring. However, reaching such remote areas involves an immense logistical effort under difficult conditions,” explains Leo.

Black Abramov glacier. Before the fall of the Soviet Union, Abramov glacier provided one the the longest continuous glacier mass balance records, dating back to 1968. In 2011, a global research network re-established a monitoring program in cooperation with local partners. The picture highlights the important role of surface albedo in terms of glacier ablation. Credit: Leo Sold (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu

Black Abramov glacier. Before the fall of the Soviet Union, Abramov glacier provided one the the longest continuous glacier mass balance records, dating back to 1968. In 2011, a global research network re-established a monitoring program in cooperation with local partners. The picture highlights the important role of surface albedo in terms of glacier ablation. Credit: Leo Sold (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu

By Laura Roberts, EGU Communications Officer and Leo Sold, PhD Student at the University of Fribourg

If you pre-register for the 2015 General Assembly (Vienna, 12 – 17 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Fly away, weather balloon

Some aspects of Earth Science are truly interdisciplinary and this week’s Imaggeo on Mondays photograph is testament to that. The maiden voyage of the research cruise SA Agulhas II offered the perfect opportunity to combine oceanographic research, as well as climate science studies. Raissa Philibert, a biogeochemistry PhD student, took this picture of the daily release of a weather balloon by meteorologists from the South African Weather Services.

Fly away, weather balloon! Credit: Raissa Philibert (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Fly away, weather balloon! Credit: Raissa Philibert (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

The highlights of Raissa trip aboard the ship include

“the multidisciplinary aspects of the cruise. It was fascinating talking to people doing such different things. Being on the first scientific cruise aboard the vessel was also extremely exciting as well as going to the southern ocean in winter as this provides such rare datasets.”

This cruise was an excellent opportunity for scientists ranging from physical oceanographers, biogeochemists, meteorologists, ornithologists and zoologists to collect data. The two main scientific programmes aboard the cruise aimed to understand 1) the seasonal changes in the carbon cycle of the Southern Ocean, and 2) gain a better understanding of the modifications in water composition caused by the meeting and mixing of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans in the Agulhas Cape region in South Africa.

Understanding both of these processes is important because they impact on the global thermohaline circulation (THC), which is strongly related to global climate change. Think of the THC as a giant conveyor belt of water within the Earth’s oceans: warm surface currents, rush from equatorial regions towards the poles, encouraged by the wind. They cool and become denser during the time it takes them to make the journey northwards and eventually sink into the deep oceans at high latitudes. They then find their way towards ocean basins and eventually rise up (upwell if you prefer the more technical terms), predominantly, in the Southern Ocean. En route, these huge water masses transport energy (in the form of heat), as well as solids, dissolved substances and gases and distribute these across the planets Oceans. So you can see why understanding the THC is crucial to researchers wanting to better understand climate change.

This map shows the pattern of thermohaline circulation. This collection of currents is responsible for the large-scale exchange of water masses in the ocean, including providing oxygen to the deep ocean. The entire circulation pattern takes ~2000 years. Credit: Nasa Earth Observatory.

This map shows the pattern of thermohaline circulation. This collection of currents is responsible for the large-scale exchange of water masses in the ocean, including providing oxygen to the deep ocean. The entire circulation pattern takes ~2000 years. Credit: Nasa Earth Observatory.

The THCs also plays a large part in the carbon cycle in the oceans. Microscopic organisms called phytoplankton drive the main biological processes through which the ocean takes up carbon. They photosynthesise like plants which mean that they use carbon dioxide and water along with other nutrients to make their organic matter and grow. After some time, the phytoplankton die and their organic matter sinks. Part of this organic matter and carbon will remain stored in the deep ocean under various forms until it is brought back up thousands of years later by the THC. Through this cycle, phytoplankton play a major role in controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and hence, also the Earth’s climate.

 

By Laura Roberts, EGU Communications Officer, and Raissa Philibert, PhD Student.

If you pre-register for the 2015 General Assembly (Vienna, 12 – 17 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

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