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Imaggeo on Mondays: Through the hole

Imaggeo on Mondays: Through the hole

The Gunung Mulu National Park is an area so geologically remarkable and home to such incredibly diverse fauna and flora it has been declared a World Heritage Area.  Located on the island of Borneo, the park is famous for its over 100 different palm species and 3500 other plant types. Geologically speaking, a trip though the varied landscapes will be rewarded with views of deep gorges and hidden valleys, as well as towering limestone and sandstone pinnacles. The predominantly calcareous landscape means most make the journey to remote area to catch a glimpse of the world’s second largest cave chamber. With dimensions of 600 m by 415 m and 80 m high, Sarawak Chamber is a natural wonder worthy of making the journey to Borneo for!

“The picture was taken in February 2014 while I was on a two month trip to Indonesia and Malaysia after graduating from my Master studies. Eventually I found one of the most beautiful places on the island of Borneo: the Gunung Mulu National Park,” explains Juliane Krenz, a PhD candidate at the Department of Environmental Science of the University of Basel.

Aside from the staggering Sarawak Chamber, the national park is crisscrossed by at least 295 km of explored caves.  Made up of the Mulu Sandstone Formation, overlain by the Melinau Formation – which formed in coral rich lagoons some 20 million years ago – the caves are home to a host of species, from bats to swiftlets.

“After spending a few days exploring one of the largest cave systems in the world, I wanted to get deeper into the rainforest and climb Mount Api to see the so-called “pinnacles” – an incredible limestone karst formation everybody was talking about,” Juliane says.

The journey to reach the “pinnacles” involved an hour’s boat ride and three hours walk through the rainforest, eventually reaching a small base camp impressive for its setting: three houses next to a crystal clear stream surrounded by mountains covered in dense forest.

The hike to the sandstone spires began in earnest the next morning. To reach the impressive formations Juliane had to climb an endless number of natural steps made of slippery roots and stones of varying heights from a comfortable 20cm up to 1m, with a total elevation increase of 1200 m in little over 2km – turning the hike into an adventurous climbing trip.

“After 3 hours hiking mostly vertically we reached the top and looked down on an innumerable amount of silver-greyish rock pinnacles spiking out between the dense bright green forest, some of them being up to 40m tall. None of us would have guessed that there were so many,” describes Juliane.

Capturing the beauty of the setting was no easy task.

“I had seen many impressive photographs of the spikes but I was looking for the special focus. Eventually I chose the hole as a frame making the largest pinnacles look like they are part of a miniature world – like me wandering through the rain forest.”

By Laura Roberts Artal , EGU Communications Officer and Juliane Krenz, a PhD candidate at the Department of Environmental Science of the University of Basel.

For more information on the Gunung National Park:

In 1977-78 there was a large expedition (followed by many others known as the Mulu Cave project) founded by the Royal Geograpical Society to explore the dimensions of the cave system. The “pinnacles” at Mount Api are part of the limestone ridge between North Thailand and New Guinea.  The area is full of limestone spikes of various sizes (from few centimeters up to several meters) that are formed through weathering and dissolution over centuries. Nowadays, most research is focused on the ecology and biodiversity in the caves and the surrounding areas.

An earlier version of this post stated Sarawak Chamber was the largest cave chamber in the world. That accolade goes to Hang Sơn Đoòng in Vietnam. With thanks to @TerjeSolbakk for helping us improve this post. 

 

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Mother Tree

 Mother Tree, Mongolia . Credit: Gantuya Ganbat (distributed via  imaggeo.egu.eu)

Mother Tree, Mongolia . Credit: Gantuya Ganbat (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Landlocked, home to mountains, deserts and the southernmost permafrost territories, Mongolia’s climate is harsh.  Warm, often humid summers, give way to freezing winters where temperatures dip as low as -25°C. Rainfall is restricted to a short period in the summer months of June and August.

These climatic factors, combined with the lack of a strong forest management strategy and anthropogenic influences, mean that only 11% of the vast 1567 million km²  of the Mongolian territory (that is larger than the area covered by Germany, Italy, France and the UK combined), is covered by forests.

The majority of forests are located in the northern part of the country, along the border with Russia. They form a transition zone between the cold, subarctic forests of Siberia and the vast steppes of southern Asia.

This week’s Imaggeo on Mondays image is the imposing, and holy, Mother Tree. Located in one of the many Tujiin Nars (pine forests) of the northern Selenge Aimag province, this giant pine is worshiped by locals who believe if you ask a wish of the Mother Tree, it will come true. Its lowermost branches are lavishly decorated with Khadags, traditional Tibetan Buddhist ceremonial scarves, brought as offerings by locals and foreign visitors alike.

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Dune ridge perspective

Imaggeo on Mondays: Dune ridge perspective

Imagine taking a hike over soft, ever shifting sands. This is exactly what Martina Klose, a researcher at USDA, did when she captured this beautiful photograph. While most of us will likely think of deserts as inhospitable and static landscapes, they can tell us much about dune forming processes, as Martina explains in today’s blog post.

The photograph shows the view down from the crest of a megadune in the Badain Jaran Desert in China. It was taken during a two-day field trip in the course of the International Conference on Aeolian Research (ICAR) VIII, which took place in Lanzhou, China, in 2014.

Aeolian processes are wind-generated processes, such as the emission, transport, and deposition of sediment

The Badain Jaran desert is located north of the Hexi Corridor in western Inner Mongolia and is one of the largest areas of shifting sands in China. With maximum dune heights of a few hundred meters, the Badain Jaran Sand Sea hosts some of the largest megadunes in the world. The sand sea is not only dry, however – amongst the dunes are a number of lakes of various sizes, creating a picturesque environment. You can see what it looks like from space by following the link to this NASA satellite image!

In general, wind is the driving force for dune formation. In the case of the Badain Jaran Sand Sea, the local topography and the subsurface water source are likely additional factors contributing to the development and evolution of the dune fields.

After a long bus drive on the way to the sand sea, climbing one of the giant dunes was a welcoming exercise for most of the conference participants – rewarded with a stunning view from the dune crest and optionally a fun slide down the dune slope.

 By Martina Klose, USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

Imaggeo on Mondays: Moonland

Imaggeo on Mondays: Moonland

The moon-like landscapes surrounding the Himalayan village of Lamayuru attract tourists seeking off-the-beaten track adventures. The village is enchanting, not only for the striking geological formations that frame it, but also for the presence of an 11th Century Buddhist monastery.

“The rock formations are known as ‘Moonland'”, says Arjun Datta, author of this week’s imaggeo on Mondays featured photograph. “The surreal moon-like rock formations at Lamayuru are nestled in the Greater Himalayas, midway between Kargil and Leh on the Srinagar-Leh highway in Ladakh, India,” explains Arjun.

It is the mesmerising bright yellow formations with clayey texture and multiple folds which give the outcrops their moon-like appearance. Some studies have attributed the unique geology of this tiny Ladakhi village to the presence of a lake about 40,000 years ago which preserved a roughly 100 m thick sequence of river and lake derived deposits.

Imaggeo is the EGU’s online open access geosciences image repository. All geoscientists (and others) can submit their photographs and videos to this repository and, since it is open access, these images can be used for free by scientists for their presentations or publications, by educators and the general public, and some images can even be used freely for commercial purposes. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. Submit your photos at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/upload/.

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