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Imaggeo on Mondays: Life on bare lava

Life on bare lava

There are plenty of hostile habitats across the globe but some flora and fauna species are resourceful enough to adapt and make extreme environments their home. From heat-loving ants of the Sahara to microbes living in the light-deprived ocean depths, through to beatles who brave the bitterly cold Alaskan winter, there are numerous examples of plants, animals and bugs who strive in environments often considered too challenging to harbour life. In today’s post, brought to you by geomorphologist Katja Laute, we feature Vinagrerilla roja, a plant species adept at making difficult terrains its home.

Vinagrerilla roja (Rumex vesicarius) / the Canary Island bladderdock is one of the most successful endemic plants for colonizing new territory in arid and volcanic areas. The photo was taken on the crater rim of the volcano Montana Bermeja (157 m asl.), located at the northernmost edge of the volcanic island La Graciosa. The island was formed by the Canary hotspot and is today part of the protected Chinijo Archipelago Natural Park which shelters endemic and highly endangered species of the Canary Islands.

The volcano Montana Bermeja is composed of red lapilli (pea to walnut-sized fragments ejected during an eruption) which seems to impede any kind of life. But as the photo shows, the bladderdock is actively growing in this apparently hostile environment. That plant life emerges from such a barren and rough volcanic environment seems almost impossible.

Only very few pioneer species succeed and manage to survive in such harsh environments with little to no soil and under an almost desertic climate. Being located on the northern side of the crater rim enables the bladderdock to capture moisture out of the reoccurring Atlantic winds. As these pioneer species grow, their dead leaves and roots will enrich the soil with organic content providing the base for a chain of ecological succession.

By Katja Laute, researcher at IUEM, Brest, France

If you pre-register for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 22 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

EGU Photo Contest 2017

EGU Photo Contest 2017

If you are pre-registered for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 23 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! Winners receive a free registration to next year’s General Assembly!

The eighth annual EGU photo competition opens on 1 February. Up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image on any broad theme related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences.

Shortlisted photos will be exhibited at the conference, together with the winning moving image, which will be selected by a panel of judges. General Assembly participants can vote for their favourite photos and the winning images will be announced on the last day of the meeting.

If you submit your images to the photo competition, they will also be included in the EGU’s open access photo database, Imaggeo. You retain full rights of use for any photos submitted to the database as they are licensed and distributed by EGU under a Creative Commons license.

You will need to register on Imaggeo so that the organisers can appropriately process your photos. For more information, please check the EGU Photo Contest page on Imaggeo.

Previous winning photographs can be seen on the 20102011, 2012,  2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 winners’ pages.

In the meantime, get shooting!

Imaggeo on Mondays: littoral rainforests

Littoral rainforests

Seagull lunch. Credit: Alicia Morugán (distributed via imaggeo.egu.eu).

Making room for growing populations, and the resources they demand, comes at the cost of precious natural environments. Rainforests, globally, are under threat from farming, logging and ever expanding cities. It is reported that if current rates of exploitation continue, the world’s rainforests could be lost within the next century.

Like almost anything else, rainforests come in all shapes and sizes. Typically, rainforests are depicted as lush, jungle-like concentrations of tall trees characterised by heavy rainfalls. But, perhaps unexpectedly, stretches of the coastline in eastern Australian are also peppered by rainforest. Because of their proximity to the ocean, these closed-canopy forests – where  approximately 70% of the sky obscured by tree leaves and limbs – are known as littoral rainforests.

Much like their equatorial cousins, Australian littoral rainforests are under threat. Large swathes of forest have been destroyed for/by agriculture, animal browsing/grazing, fire, mining or housing. Invasive species and weeds pose a particular danger to the forests too.

Today’s featured image was taken from “The Brunswick Heads Nature Reserve, a protected nature reserve located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The 221-hectare (550-acre) reserve is situated near Brunswick Heads and contains an intact segment of littoral rainforest,” writes Alicia Morugán, author of the photograph.

The reserve is home to many critically endangered rainforest plants that are either at the southern limit of their distribution or not found in many other places in New South Wales, as well as many threatened animal species. Current conservation efforts center around monitoring to identify key threats to the precious ecosystems, as well as protecting known sites.

 

If you pre-register for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 22 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

 

Imaggeo on Mondays: the remotest place on Earth?

Imaggeo on Mondays: the remotest place on Earth?

Perhaps a bold claim, but at over 4,000 km away from Australia and 4,200 km from South Africa, Heard Island is unquestionably hard to reach.

The faraway and little know place is part of a group of volcanic islands known as HIMI (comprised of the Heard Island and McDonald Islands), located in the southwest Indian Ocean. Shrouded in persistent bad weather and surrounded by the vast ocean, Heard Island, the largest of the group, was first sighted by the merchant vessel Oriental in 1853.

Its late discovery and inaccessibility mean Heard Island is largely undisturbed by human activity (some research, surveillance, fishing and shipping take place on the island and it’s surrounding waters). It boasts a rich fauna and flora: seals, invertebrates, birds and seals call it home, as do hardy species of vegetation which grow low to the ground to avoid the fierce winds which batter the island.

Geologically speaking the islands are pretty unique too. They are the surface exposure of the second largest submarine plateau in the world, the Kerguelen Plateau. Limestones deposited some 45–50 million years ago began the process which saw the emergence of the islands from the ocean floor. Ancient volcanic activity followed, accumulating volcanic materials,  such as pillow lavas and volcanic sediments, up to 350m thick. For the last million years (or less) Heard Island has been dominated by volcanism, giving rise to the 2745m tall Big Ben and 700m tall Mt. Dixon. Eruptions and volcanic events have been observed on the island since 1947. Much of the recent volcanism in the region has centered around McDonald island, which has grown 40 km in area and 100 m in height since the 1980s.   

As the group of islands provides a remarkable setting, where geological processes and evolution (given that large populations of marine birds and mammals numbering in the millions, but low species diversity) can be observed in in real time, UNESCO declared HIMI a World Heritage Site back in 1997.

If you pre-register for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 22 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

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