GeoLog

Laura Roberts-Artal

Laura Roberts Artal is the Communications Officer at the European Geosciences Union. She is responsible for the management of the Union's social media presence and the EGU blogs, where she writes regularly for the EGU's official blog, GeoLog. She is also the point of contact for early career scientists (ECS) at the EGU Office. Laura has a PhD in palaeomagnetism from the University of Liverpool. Laura tweets at @LauRob85.

February GeoRoundUp: the best of the Earth sciences from around the web

Comparing the TRAPPIST-1 planets

Drawing inspiration from popular stories on our social media channels, as well as  unique and quirky research news, this monthly column aims to bring you the best of the Earth and planetary sciences from around the web.

Major story

Undoubtedly the story of the month is the discovery of a star system of seven Earth-sized planets just 40 light-years away from our own. What makes the finding so exciting is that three of the planets lie in the habitable zone. All could have oceans and atmospheres, making them good candidates to search for extraterrestrial life.

The seven Earth-sized worlds orbit the ultra-cool dwarf star, TRAPPIST-1, which has been known to astronomers for some time. As the planets passed in front of TRAPPIST-1, the star’s light output dipped. Using a combination of ground and spaced based telescopes, the changes in the light output were used to detect the planets and gather information about their size, composition and orbit, explains the press release by the European Southern Observatory.

This simple GIF by New Scientist illustrates the principle of how the remarkable planets were found (while at the same time highlighting the fact there is a mind-blowing number of exoplanets scattered throughout space!).

The ultra-cool dwarf star and its planetary system has an even cooler website, which comes complete with great posters, videos, short stories, poems and graphic novels; as well as a detailed timeline of all the years of work which took place behind the scenes and culminated in the announcement made earlier this month.

Our top pick for a science poem honouring the discovery is In Search of New Life by Sam Illingworth, a lecturer at Manchester Metropolitan University.  You can also find an audio version of the poem here.

Far into space, amongst the darkest Sea

New planets sit like marbles in a row.

We turn our eyes to find out what might be

And search for patterns in their ether’s flow;

Then try to see what else might lie below.

And as we probe how life’s rich web was spun,

Do they look back towards our distant sun?

 

What you might have missed

The discovery of a previously unknown continent below New Zealand and New Caledonia dominated headlines towards the middle of the month.

Dr. Mortimer, of GNS Science and lead author of the study, argues that “being more than 1 million square kilometers in area, and bounded by well-defined geologic and geographic limits, Zealandia [the name given to the newly discovered continent] is, by our definition, large enough to be termed a continent.”

But without an official authority which designates the existence of continents, it will be for the broader scientific community to recognise Zealandia as one. And the jury is still out, as Alex Witze finds in this Nature News & Comment article:

“Claiming that Zealandia is a continent is a bit like stamp collecting,” says Peter Cawood, a geologist at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. “So what?”

While the (potentially) new Antipodean continent dominated headlines, you might have missed the discovery of another lost continent. Deep under the waters of the Indian Ocean, sandwiched between Madagascar and India, lie the scattered pieces of an ancient, drowned, microcontient called Mauritia. The authors of the study, published earlier this month in Nature Communications, dated zircons of up to 3 billion years old from Mauritanian volcanic rocks. Considering Mauritania is much younger, the researchers argue the zircons must have come from another, already existing continent.

Meanwhile, in the southern-most reaches of our planet, a huge iceberg is set to breakaway from the Larsen C Ice Shelf, on the northeastern coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. A large crack in the ice was spotted in natural-colour satellite imagery captured by NASA back in August 2016. Int January 2017 alone, the crack grew by more than 10 km in length and now stretches 175 km over the ice.

British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists recently captured footage of the huge crack. The video highlights what the calving of such a large iceberg might mean for the Larsen C ice shelf, while this Nature News and Comment story highlights how far glaciology has come since similar calving events in the 90s and 00s. Scientists now have a much better understanding of what might happen in the weeks and months to come.

Five links we liked

The EGU story

After long-awaited snowfall in January, parts of the Alps are now covered with fresh powder and happy skiers. But the Swiss side of the iconic mountain range had the driest December since record-keeping began over 150 years ago, and 2016 was the third year in a row with scarce snow over the Christmas period. A study published this month in The Cryosphere, a journal of the European Geosciences Union, shows bare Alpine slopes could be a much more common sight in the future.

The new research, by scientists based at the Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF) and at the CRYOS Laboratory at the École Polytechnique Fédérale in Switzerland, shows that the Alps could lose as much as 70% of snow cover by the end of the century. However, if humans manage to keep global warming below 2°C, the snow-cover reduction would be limited to 30% by 2100.

And don’t forget! To stay abreast of all the EGU’s events and activities, from highlighting papers published in our open access journals to providing news relating to EGU’s scientific divisions and meetings, including the General Assembly, subscribe to receive our monthly newsletter.

Imaggeo on Mondays: harnessing Earth’s inner heat

Imaggeo on Mondays: harnessing Earth’s inner heat

Iceland, the land of ice and fire, is well known for its volcanicity. Most famously, it is home to Eyjafjallajökull: the volcano which caused wide spread mayhem across European airspace when it erupted in 2010.

But not all the local volcanic activity is unwelcome. High temperature geothermal areas are a byproduct of the volcanic setting and the energy released can be used to power homes and infrastructure. Indeed, geothermal power facilities currently generate 25% of the country’s total electricity production.

“I took the photograph during a three hour walk in the Krafla area, a few kilometres away from Myvatn Lake in Northern Iceland,” explains Chiara Arrighi, a PhD student at the University of Florence in Italy, who took today’s featured image while on a two week holiday on the island.

There are 20 high-temperature areas containing steam fields with underground temperatures reaching 250°C within 1,000 m depth dotted across the country. Krafla, a caldera of about 10 km in diameter, and the wider Myvatn area is one of them. The volcano has a long history of eruptions, which drives the intrusion of magma at (geologically) shallow depths which in turn heats groundwater trapped deep underground, generating the steam field. Only a few hundred meters from the shooting location a power station of 60 MW capacity exploits high- and low-pressure steam from 18 boreholes.

Fumaroles and mud pots, like the one photographed by Chiara, are the surface expression of the geothermal activity. The discoloration of the rocks in the immediate vicinity of the bubbling mire is due to the acidic nature of the water in the pool. The steam is rich in hydrogen sulphide, which oxidises to sulphur and/or sulphuric acid as it mixes with oxygen when it reaches the surface. It deposits around the vents of fumaroles and as sulphuric acid in the stagnant waters, leading to alteration of the surrounding bedrock and soil.

If you pre-register for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 22 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly!  These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

Last chance to enter the EGU Photo Contest 2017!

Last chance to enter the EGU Photo Contest 2017!

If you are pre-registered for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 23 -28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! Winners receive a free registration to next year’s General Assembly! But hurry, there are only a few days left to enter!

Every year we hold a photo competition and exhibit in association with our open access image repository, Imaggeo and our annual General Assembly. There is also a moving image competition, which features a short clip of continuous geoscience footage. Pre-registered conference participants can take part by submitting up to three original photos and/or one moving image on any broad theme related to the Earth, planetary and space sciences.

How to enter

You will need to register on Imaggeo to upload your image, which will also be included in the database. When you’ve uploaded it, you’ll have the option to edit the image details – here you can enter it into the EGU Photo Contest – just check the checkbox! The deadline for submissions is 1 March.

Imaggeo on Mondays: a storm is coming

Imaggeo on Mondays: a storm is coming

Coastlines globally are immensely diverse: from the beautifully topical and sun kissed beaches of the Caribbean, to the wet and misty British coastline, through to the raw and wild Alaskan shores, they are home to scores of flora and fauna; rich habitats shaped by powerful forces of nature.

In stark contrast, some coastlines, (28,000 km worldwide to be precise) are dry almost barren places, where little grows. These long stretches of inhospitable seaside lands are known as hyperarid and arid coastlines. Due to the lack of protective vegetation the land is exposed to the action of winds and the sun, leaving behind pavements of bare rock, large dune formations and/or highly saline enclosed lakes (sebkhas).

The Gulf of Aqaba, in the north-western tip of Saudi Arabia, where the desert meets the Red Sea is one such place. Rivers here, which drain into the sea water, are fleeting. They appear after heavy rainfall, when flash floods deliver huge influxes of sediment to the coral-rich waters of the Red Sea.

Nadine Hoffman took today’s featured image while driving from Israel from the Red Sea. Pictured is the northern tip of Saudi Arabia, where a spring storm is coming into the desert bringing severe rain and flash floods. Eventually, the flood waters will drain into the Gulf of Aqaba.

 

If you pre-register for the 2017 General Assembly (Vienna, 22 – 28 April), you can take part in our annual photo competition! From 1 February up until 1 March, every participant pre-registered for the General Assembly can submit up three original photos and one moving image related to the Earth, planetary, and space sciences in competition for free registration to next year’s General Assembly! These can include fantastic field photos, a stunning shot of your favourite thin section, what you’ve captured out on holiday or under the electron microscope – if it’s geoscientific, it fits the bill. Find out more about how to take part at http://imaggeo.egu.eu/photo-contest/information/.

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