CR
Cryospheric Sciences

Emma C. Smith

Emma is a post-doc at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Marine and Polar Research in Germany, using geophysics to investigate ice dynamics in East Antarctica. She completed her Ph.D. at The British Antarctic Survey and University of Cambridge in 2016 and is interested in all things icy and geophysical. She was lucky enough to be involved in fieldwork for the iSTAR Antarctica project and tweets as @emma_c_smith

Image of the Week – See sea ice from 1901!

Image of the Week – See sea ice from 1901!

The EGU Cryosphere blog has reported on several studies of Antarctic sea ice (for example, here and here) made from high-tech satellites, but these records only extend back to the 1970s, when the satellite records began. Is it possible to work out what sea ice conditions were like before this time? The short answer is YES…or this would be a very boring blog post! Read on to find out how heroic explorers of the past are helping to inform the future.


During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (1897–1917), expeditions to the “South” by explorers such as Scott and Shackleton involved a great deal of time aboard ship. Our image of the week shows one such ship – the ship of the German Erich von Drygalsk – captured from a hot air balloon in 1901.

These ships spent many months navigating paths through sea ice and keeping detailed logs of their observations along the way. Climate scientists at the University of Reading, UK have used these logs to reconstruct sea-ice extent in Antarctica at this time – providing key information to extend satellite observations of sea ice around the continent.

Why do we want to know about sea-ice extent 100 years ago?

In the last three decades, satellite records of Antarctic sea-ice extent have shown an increase, in contrast to a rapid decrease in Arctic sea-ice extent over the same period (see our previous post). It is not clear if this, somewhat confusing, trend is unusual or has been seen before and without a longer record, it is not possible to say. This limits how well the sensitivity of sea ice to climate change can be understood and how well climate models that predict future ice extent can be validated.

To help understand this increase in Antarctic sea-ice extent; records of ice composition and nature from ships log books recorded between 1897–1917 have been collated and compared to present-day ice conditions (1989–2014).

What does the study show?

The comparison between sea ice extent in the Heroic Age and today shows that the area of sea ice around Antarctica has only changed in size by a very small amount in the last ~100 years. Except in the Weddell sea, where ice extent was 1.71o (~80 km) further North in the Heroic Age, conditions comparable to present-day were seen around most of Antarctica. This suggests that Antarctic sea-ice extent is much less sensitive to the effects of climate change than that Arctic sea ice. One of the authors of the study, Jonny Day, summarises these findings in the video below:

References and Further Reading

Planet Press

planet_pressThis is modified version of a “planet press” article written by Bárbara Ferreira and originally published on 26th November 2016 on the EGU website .

It is also available in Dutch, Hungarian, Serbian, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese! All translated by volunteers – why not consider volunteering to translate an article and learn something interesting along the way?

 

Edited by Sophie Berger

Image of the Week – A rather splendid round-up of CryoEGU!

Image of the Week – A rather splendid round-up of CryoEGU!

The 2017 edition of the EGU general assembly was a great success overall and for the cryospheric division in particular. We were for instance thrilled to see that two of the three winning photos of the EGU Photo contest featured ice! To mark the occasion we are delighted to use as our image of this week,  one of these pictures, which  shows an impressive rapid in the Pite River in northern Sweden. Congratulations to Michael Grund for capturing this stunning shot.  You can find all photos entered in the contest on imaggeo — the EGU’s  open access geosciences image repository.

But being the most photogenic division (at least the ice itself is…not sure about the division team itself!) was not our only cryo-achievement during the conference. Read on to get the most of (cryo)EGU 2017!


EGU 2017 in figures

  • 17,399 abstracts in the programme (including 1179 to cryo-related sessions)
  • 14,496 scientists from 107 countries attending the conference
  • 11,312 poster, 4,849 oral and 1,238 PICO presentations
  • 649 scientific sessions and 88 short courses
  • 53% of early-career scientists

Polar Science Career Panel

During the week we teamed up with APECS to put on a Polar Science Career Panel. Our five panellists, from different backgrounds and job fields, engaged in a lively discussion with over 50 session attendees. With many key topics being frankly and honesty discussed by our panelists, who had some great comments and advice to offer. Highlights of the discussion can be found on the @EGU_CR twitter feed with #CareerPanel.

At the end we asked each panellist to come up with some final words of advice for early-career scientists, which were:

  • There is no right and wrong, ask other people and see what you like
  • Remember you can shape your own job
  • Take chances! Even if you are likely to fail and think outside the box
  • Remember that you are a whole human being… not only a scientist and use all your skills
  • And last but not least… come and work at Carbon Brief (thanks Robert McSweeney!!)

However, the most memorable quotation of the entire panel is arguably from Kerim Nisancioglu :

Social media

One of the things the EGU Cryosphere team has been recognised for is its great social media presence. We tweeted away pre-EGU with plenty of advice, tips and information about events during the week and also made sure to keep our followers up-to-date during the week.
If it is not yet the case, please consider following us on twitter and/or facebook to keep updated with the latest news about the cryosphere division, the EGU or any other interesting cryo-related news!

We need YOU for the EGU cryosphere division

Conferences are usually a great way to meet new people but did you know that getting involved with the outreach activities of the division is another way?

Each division has an ECS (early-career scientist) representative and a team to go with that and the Cryosphere division is one of the most active. Our new team of early-career scientists for 2017/18 includes some well known faces and some who are new to the division this year:

Nanna Karlsson : outgoing ECS representative and incoming coordinator for posters and PICOs awards

Emma Smith : incoming ECS representative and outgoing co-chief editor of the  cryoblog

Sophie Berger: chief-editor of the cryoblog and incoming outreach officer

Clara Burgard : incoming co-chief editor the cryoblog

 

 

 

We also have many more people (who aren’t named above) involved in the blog and social media team AND the good news is that we are looking for new people to either run our social media accounts and/or contribute regularly to this “award winning” cryoblog. Please get in touch with Emma Smith (ECS Representative and former blog editor) or Sophie Berger (Chief Blog Editor and Outreach Officer) if you would like to get involved in any aspect of the EGU Cryosphere team. No experience is necessary just enthusiasm and a love of bad puns!

And here is your “Save the Date” for EGU 2018 – which will be held between 8th – 13th April 2018.

Co-authored by Emma Smith and Sophie Berger

A brief guide to navigating EGU 2017!

A brief guide to navigating EGU 2017!

Are you going to the EGU General Assembly in Vienna next week? If so, read on for a quick guide to navigating the week: Where to start, what to see and how to meet people and enjoy yourself! After all, the meeting is as much about the opportunities meet scientists from all over the world as it is about the science itself.


How on Earth do I know what is going on?!

The EGU General Assembly is a massive meeting with many parallel session, short courses, medal lectures and much more. So how do you know what is going on and when, and how can you effectively keep track of it all? The simplest way is to use the online EGU program – it has options to browse sessions of interest chronologically or by discipline. You can simply click on a session or an individual presentation to add it to your personal programme. You can then view your personal program online, print it as a PDF or if you have a smartphone you can also use the EGU2017 mobile app to keep track of your personal program on the go – scan the QR code to download it or click here from your smartphone.

Don’t forget to keep track of the twitter hastag #EGU17 to see what is happening on a second by second basis and also the #CryoEGU17 hashtag for up-to-date cryosphere news.


Short courses

Short courses at EGU are designed to give you an insight into a certain area or topic and cover all sorts of subjects and skills. There are many courses running at EGU this year – we have highlighted a few below, but be sure to check out the full list in the online program. Short courses provide a great chance to learn about a topic, skill or piece of software that has been on your to do list, so why not drop by and meet the experts who have kindly agreed to participate and share their knowledge?

How to navigate EGU: tips & tricks

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 08:30–10:00,  Room -2.31

Held first thing on Monday morning, this could be just the session you need to get your week off to a productive start!

Quantarctica

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 13:30–15:00, Room -2.31

Are you working on Antarctica data and getting to grips with GIS? Then this course is for you! The User Workshop is aimed at beginning and intermediate GIS users and Antarctic researchers interested in learning how to integrate, analyze, and present their own research data with the free, open-source, cross-platform QGIS software. Participants should install and test the latest version of the Quantarctica package on their laptops prior to arriving at the workshop.

Crashing the Cryosphere

When and Where: Mon, 24 Apr, 15:30–17:00, Room -2.16

This is one to tell your cryo-curious friends from other divisions about!  We are inviting scientists from all areas to join us in “gate-crashing” the Cryosphere Division and learn about how topics in cryospheric science are relevant to their research. During the short course, four cryosphere experts will introduce their research, giving you the background to venture further into cryospheric topics during the rest of the meeting.

  • Keynote Intro: Olaf Eisen (The AWI, DE and head of EGU Cryosphere Division)
  • Ice-Ocean interaction: Inga Koszalka (GEOMAR, Kiel, DE)
  • The Arctic Atmosphere : John Prytherch (MISU, Stockholm, SE)
  • Avalanches: Thierry Faug (Irstea, FR)
  • GIA/Solid Earth: Valentina Barletta (DTU, DK)

Communicating Climate Change – blogging as a group

When and Where: Wed, 26 Apr, 13:30–15:00, Room -2.85

Blogs are a great way to communicate your science, but where do you start? This interactive short course will begin with an introduction from Mathew Reeve, founder of ClimateSnack. It will then be over to you to get some practice experience at editing a blog post – turning an awful draft into a pleasant and clear blog post. Please bring a pen and paper.

Successful strategies to design, develop and write a scientific paper

When and Where: Wed, 26 Apr, 17:30–19:00, Room N2

An essential part of a career in research is publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals. This means responding to reviews of your own work and reviewing the work of other scientists. In this short course you will get the chance to learn how to navigate the review process. The course will start with some advice, tip and tricks from Benjamin Rabe (Researcher, AWI, Germany), Julienne Stroeve (Senior Research Scientist, NSIDC, USA), Tom Coulthard (Professor of Physical Geography, University of Hull, UK) and Paul Cumine (Publisher, Geophysics and Oil & Gas Journals, Elsevier Ltd., UK) before a panel discussion to allow you to get answers to those burning questions you may have!

Polar Science Career Panel (EGU Cryosphere and APECS)

When and Where: Thu, 27 Apr, 15:30–17:00, Room -2.16

Many early career scientists come to EGU looking for inspiration to take the next step in their careers. There are so many opportunities both academic and elsewhere that it can be daunting to know where to start looking and what the options are. Join us for a panel discussion about everything to do with life post-polar-PhD and expand your ideas about where you might go next. Our panelists are:

  • Felicity Liggins (Climate Scientist and Outreach Program Manager, Met Office, UK)
  • Robert McSweeney (Science Writer, Carbon Brief)
  • Lindsey Nicholson (PostDoc, Uni. Innsbruck, Austria)
  • Kerim Nisancioglu (Prof. Of Earth Sciences, Uni. Bergen, Norway)
  • Wiebke Schubotz (Project Coordinator of HD(CP)², Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany)


Social event for Early Career Cryosphere Scientists!

So you have an idea of what scientific stuff is going on, but there is, of course, another important aspect to any conference…. they are a great place to socialise! However, it can be very daunting to know how and where to meet people at such a large meeting. This year the EGU Cryosphere team are organising two social events joint with APECS as well as a lunch for anyone who is interested in joining our blog team – also don’t forget the March for Science taking place on Saturday the 22nd April.

Pre-Icebreaker Meet Up

The conference icebreaker can be a daunting experience to attend alone but it is a great event to go along to. We are organising a friendly pre-icebreaker meet up for cryospheric ECSs on Sunday 23rd from 16:00We will meet at a yet-to-be-determined cafe in Vienna, have a chat, do some networking, have a cake and then head to the EGU conference centre together in time for the icebreaker. Keep your eyes on the Facebook event for more details!

Cryo Night Out!

On Thursday evening (27th), after the Polar Science Career Panel there will be a joint APECS and EGU Cryosphere division night out. We will be leaving from the conference centre after the panel session (Room -2.16) and heading for Wieden Braü for food and drinks, you can walk down with us as a group or meet there at 19:30. If you would like to eat please fill out the Facebook poll to give us an idea of numbers! Hopefully see plenty of faces old and new there 😀

EGU Cryosphere Bloggers Lunch

An informal lunch meeting for anyone interested in getting involved in the EGU Cryosphere blog on Tuesday 25th. Meet in front of the main entrance at 12:15 and we will decide on where to go depending on the weather. Please email the editors Emma (emma.smith@awi.de) or Sophie (sberger@ulb.ac.be) if you want to come along but aren’t sure who to look for. As an extra incentive Sophie will be bringing some Belgian chocolate!!

Ice Core Young Scientist (ICYS) social

Early-career scientists with an interest in ice cores are invited to join the Ice Core Young Scientists (ICYS) for a get-together with drinks and/or dinner on Tuesday 25th, from 18:30 (more details on facebook).
The get-together will take place at Café Einstein, Rathausplatz 4, Vienna . For those going directly from the conference venue, we will be leaving from there at 17:45, and you can find us (Mai Winstrup & Emma Kahle) by the main entrance.

March for Science

The day before the official start of the EGU GA (Saturday 22nd April) is Earth Day. On this day scientists and science enthusiasts across the globe will be marching to celebrate science and to call for the safeguarding of its future. A satellite march organised by local researchers is taking place in Vienna. If you are going to be in Vienna on the Saturday then it is a great chance to get involved – find out more details, including where and when to meet, on the EGU blog.


Am I an ECS?

The EGU officially defines an Early Career Scientist (ECS) as:

an undergraduate or postgraduate (Masters/PhD) student or a scientist who has received his or her highest degree (BSc, MSc, or PhD) within the past seven years  (where appropriate, up to one year of parental leave time may be added per child).

However, everyone is of course more than welcome to come along and  attend the short courses and social events organised by your ECS team, the more the merrier!


General Advice….

The General Assembly can be an overwhelming experience. Here are some tips from the EGU Cryosphere’s esteemed ECS representative Nanna Karlsson:

  • Take advantage of the lunch breaks and go for a walk! When you exit the main conference building turn left and head for the river, or turn right and you will find that behind the concrete buildings there is a very nice park.
  • Go to a session outside your field or area of interest. Even in completely different research topics, I often find similarities in methods or applications that inspire me to think differently about my own research.
  • Explore Vienna and treat yourself to a bit of time off to recover during the week. If your programme is completely packed, then hurry to the U-Bahn in a lunch break (the ticket is after all included in the registration fee) and go to the centre of town. Half an hour’s stroll will give you at least an impression of the city and you will not leave Vienna with the feeling that you have really only seen the conference centre.

Edited by Nanna Karlsson

Image of the Week – Ice on Fire (Part 2)

Image of the Week – Ice on Fire (Part 2)

This week’s image looks like something out of a science fiction movie, but sometimes what we find on Earth is even more strange than what we can imagine! Where the heat of volcanoes meets the icy cold of glaciers strange and wonderful landscapes are formed. 


Location of the Kamchatka Peninsula [Credit: Encyclopaedia Britannica]

The Kamchatka Peninsula, in the far East of Russia, has the highest concentration of active volcanoes on Earth. Its climate is cold due to the Arctic winds from Siberia combined with cold sea currents passing through the Bearing Strait, meaning much of it is glaciated.

Mutnovsky is a volcano located in the south of the peninsula, which last erupted in March 2000. At the base of the volcano are numerous labyrinths of caves within ice. The caves are carved into the ice by volcanically heated water. The roof of the cave shown in our image of the week is thin enough to allow sunlight to penetrate. The light is filtered by the ice creating a magical environment inside the cave, which looks a bit like the stained glass windows of a cathedral. It is not always easy to access these caves, but when the conditions are favourable it makes for a wonderful sight!

The Mutnovsky volcano is fairly accessible for tourists, around 70 km south of the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Maybe this could be the holiday destination you have been searching for?

Further Reading

We have featured a number of stories about ice-volcano interaction on our blog before, read more about them here, here and here!

Edited by Sophie Berger

Image of The Week – The Pulsating Ice Sheet!

Image of The Week – The Pulsating Ice Sheet!

During the last glacial period (~110,000-12,500 years ago) the Laurentide Ice Sheet (North America) experienced rapid, episodic, mass loss events – known as Heinrich events. These events are particularly curious as they occurred during the colder portions of the last glacial period, when we would intuitively expect large-scale mass loss during warmer times. In order to understand mass loss mechanisms from present-day ice sheets we need to understand what happened in the past. So, how can we better explain Heinrich events?


What are Heinrich Events?

During a Heinrich event large swarms of icebergs were discharged from the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the Hudson Strait and eventually into the North Atlantic Ocean. This addition of fresh water to the oceans caused a rise in sea level and a change in ocean currents and therefore climate.

We know about these events by studying glacial debris that was transported from the ice sheet into the oceans by the icebergs and eventually deposited on the ocean floor. From studying ocean-sediment records we know that Heinrich events occurred episodically during the last glacial period but not on at a regular intervals. Interestingly, when compared to temperature records from Greenland ice cores, it can be seen that the timing of Heinrich events coincides with the cold phases of Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) cycles – rapid temperature fluctuations which occurred during the last glacial period (see our previous post).

the timing of Heinrich events coincides with the cold phases of Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) cycles

What do we think causes them?

A new study, published last month in Nature, uses numerical modelling to show how pulses of warm ocean water could trigger Heinrich events. Our image of the week (Figure 1) illustrates the proposed mechanism for one event cycle:

  • a) Ice sheet at it’s full extent, grounded on a sill (raised portion of the bed, at the mouth of the Hudson Strait). Notice the sill is around 300m below sea level at this time.
  • b) A pulse of sub-surface water (purple) warms by a few degrees, encouraging iceberg calving at the glacier front and causing the ice begin to retreat from the sill.
  • c) As the ice retreats, it becomes unstable due to an inwards sloping bed (see our previous post on MISI). This leads to sudden rapid retreat of the ice – characteristic of Heinrich events.
  • d) Due to ice loss and thus less mass depressing the bed, the bed will slowly rise (Glacial Isostatic Adjustment), eventually the sill has risen to a level which cuts off the warmer water from the ice front and the ice can slowly advance again.

Once the ice has advanced back to it’s maximum extent (a) it will slowly depress the bed again, allowing deeper, warmer water to reach the ice front and the whole cycle repeats!

The authors of this study used this model to simulate Heinrich events over the last glacial period and were able to accurately predict the timing of Heinrich events, as known from ocean sediment records. Check out this video to see the model in action!!

Why is it important?

This study shows that the proposed mechanism probably controlled the onset of rapid mass-loss Heinrich events in the past and more generally that such mechanisms can cause the rapid retreat of marine terminating glaciers. This is important as it adds to our understanding of the stability (or instability) of present day marine terminating glaciers – such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet! If such rapid mass loss happened regularly in the past we need to know if and how it might happen in the future!

such mechanisms can cause the rapid retreat of marine terminating glaciers.


Check out the full study and the news article summarising the findings here:

Image of the Week – It’s all a bit erratic in Yosemite!

Image of the Week – It’s all a bit erratic in Yosemite!

When you think of California, with its sun-soaked beaches and Hollywood glamour, glaciers may not be the first thing that spring to mind – even for ice nerds like us. However, Yosemite National Park in California’s Sierra Nevada is famous for its dramatic landscape, which was created by glacial action. With our latest image of the week we show you some of the features that were left behind by ancient glaciers.


What do we see here?

Although Yosemite is now largely glacier-free the imprint of large-scale glaciation is evident everywhere you look. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), around 26,000 to 18,000 years ago, much of North America was covered in ice. Evidence of this can be seen in the strange landscape, shown in our image of the week. The bedrock surface in this area is polished and smoothed due to a huge ice mass that was moving over it, crushing anything in it’s path. When this ice mass melted rocks and stones it transported were released from the ice and left strewn on the smoothed bedrock surface. These abandoned rocks and stones are know as glacial erratics. Some of these erratics will have travelled from far-away regions to their resting place today.

During the last glacial maximum (LGM), around 26,000 to 18,000 years ago, much of North America was covered in ice.

Glaciers that still remain!

There are still two glaciers in Yosemite, Lyell and Maclure, residing in the highest peaks of the National Park. Park rangers have been monitoring them since the 1930s (Fig. 2), so there is a comprehensive record of how they have changed over this period. Sadly, as with many other glaciers around the world this means a huge amount mass has been lost – read more about it here!

Figure 2: Survey on Maclure Glacier by park rangers in the 1930s [Credit: National Parks Service]

On a more cheerful note – Here at the EGU Cryosphere Blog we think it is rather fantastic that the park rangers of the 1930s conducted fieldwork in a suit, tie and wide-brimmed hat and we are hoping some of you might be encouraged to bring this fashion back! 😀

If you do please make sure to let us know, posting it on social media an tagging us @EGU_CR! Here are a few more ideas of historical “fieldwork fashion” to wet your appetite: Danish explorers in polar bear suits, 1864-65 Belgian-Dutch Antarctic Expedition and of course Shackleton’s Endurance expedition!


Imaggeo, what is it?

You like this image of the week? Good news, you are free to re-use it in your presentation and publication because it comes from Imaggeo, the EGU open access image repository.

Image of the Week – Blood Falls!

Image of the Week – Blood Falls!

If glaciers could speak, you might imagine them saying – “HELP!” The planet continues to warm and this means glaciers continue to shrink. Our new image of the week shows a glacier that appears to be making this point in a rather dramatic and gruesome way – it appears to be bleeding!


If you went to the snout of Taylor Glacier in Antarctica’s Dry Valley region (see map below) you would witness a bright red waterfall, around 15m high, flowing from the glacier into Lake Bonney. Due to it’s colour, this waterfall has acquired the somewhat graphic name: Blood Falls!

The Dry Valleys

Location of Taylor Glacier in Taylor Valley – one of the Antarctic Dry Valleys. The American McMurdo Research Station is located a short distance away [Credit: USGS via Wikimedia Commons ]

The dry valleys, as the name suggests, are considered one of the driest and most arid places on Earth – which seems like an unusual location for waterfall! The area is completely devoid of animals and complex plants, however, in finding an explanation for the colour of Blood Falls, scientists have also gained an insight into a whole ecosystem hidden beneath the Dry Valley glaciers.

Why is the water red?

The water that feeds Blood Falls is salty and rich in iron. This water is forced out from underneath the glacier by the pressure of the overlying ice (see schematic below) and as it emerges the iron in the water comes into contact with oxygen causing it to rust (oxidise) and turn the water red. But why is this water so salty and iron-rich in the first place? The story of how this unusual water came to be starts around five million years ago…

At this time, it is thought that the dry valleys were submerged beneath the ocean as part of a system of fjords (Mikucki et al., 2015). Subsequent uplift of this land and climatic cooling causing a drop in sea level left some of this salty ocean water isolated as a lake. Around 1.5 million – 2 million years ago a glacier started to form on top of this lake. The ice cut the lake off from the atmosphere and caused the lake water to become even more salty by the process of cryoconcentration (lake water in contact with the glacier ice is frozen, the salt is left behind in the lake increasing the concentration). Iron was introduced into the water from the bedrock beneath the lake, which was ground up as the ice moved over the top of it. There was also something else in this ancient sea water, that surprised scientists when they began to analyse the water from Blood Falls – microbes!

A schematic cross-section of Blood Falls showing how microbial communities survive in this hostile environment [Credit: Zina Deretsky, NSF ]

Life in the lake – Microbes

When it was covered in ice, this subglacial lake was very cold and cut off from the out side world – meaning no sun light and oxygen, which are normally essential for microbes to survive. However, the microbes in this lake are thought to have adapted to survive using sulphates and iron in the water (Mikucki et al., 2009).  This strange ecosystem is surviving in extreme conditions and shows how adaptable microbes can be. An area once thought to be too inhospitable to support much life has been shown to be much more “lively” than first thought – sparking up ideas about lifeforms in other inhospitable environments, such as Mars.

Further Reading

 

Edited by Sophie Berger

Image of the Week – Goodness gracious, great balls of ice!

Image of the Week – Goodness gracious, great balls of ice!

At first glance our image of the week may look like an ordinary stoney beach…but if you look more closely you will see that this beach is not, in fact, covered in stones or pebbles but balls of ice! We have written posts about many different weird and wonderful ice formations and phenomena (e.g. hair ice or ice tsunamis) here at the EGU Cryosphere blog and here is another one to add to the list – ice balls!


During the northern hemisphere winter these naturally formed balls of ice have been found on several Arctic shores; as well as Estonia there have been reports of them in RussiaNorth America and Northern Germany. There are even photos of “ball ice” in the Great Lakes from a 1966 book of aerial photography published by the University of Michigan. However, they are still a rare occurrence, surprising and delighting onlookers when they appear.

How do they form and why are they not seen more often?

These ice balls are thought to form from ice slush, which is amalgamated by turbulent water to form rough lumpy ice masses – similar to the way you would roll a small snow ball into a much larger one to form a snow man. The ice masses are then rounded into the smooth spherical shapes you see in our image of the week by wave action rolling them around in shallow water near the shore (see video below). This is much the same way as pebbles on a beach are smoothed and rounded – it just happens a lot faster with ice balls than solid pebbles!

It seems that the right combination of wind strength, wind direction, sea temperature and coast line shape are needed to form these features and then bring them on to the shore. For all of these things to occur at the same time is rare and special!

Image of The Week – Prize Polar Pictures!

Image of The Week –  Prize Polar Pictures!

Last week was the Fall APECS International Polar Week, designed to promote and celebrate the great collaborative science that goes on around the world to further our understanding of the polar regions. Part of this celebration was a figure competition, to find the most “eye-catching, informative and inspiring” figures that illustrate aspects of polar science.

What better, we thought, than to feature the winning figure as our Image of The Week? They say a image tells a thousand words and here at the EGU Cryosphere blog we wholeheartedly agree!


APECS International Polar Week

For the past 4 years APECS (The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists) have organised an International Polar Week each March and September. The International Polar Weeks are timed to coincide with the two equinoxes – the only times of year where the Northern and Southern hemisphere are equally illuminated by the sun – a rather nice way to tie our polar regions together!

International Polar Week highlights the importance of the polar regions and, in particular, provides an opportunity to develop new outreach activities in collaboration with teachers and educators. APECS have a fantastic catalogue of polar outreach resources for anyone wanting to spread the word about these diverse and important regions of Earth. They also organise events such as polar film festivals, talks and a figure competition. Today’s Image of The Week is the winning figure from the Polar Week figure competition, created by Noémie Ross as part of the A Frozen-Ground Cartoon outreach project.

A Frozen-Ground Cartoon”  – Where science meets art!

Thawing permafrost in Siberia [Credit: Guido Grosse via imaggeo ]

“A Frozen-Ground Cartoon outreach project was designed to help spread the word about permafrost and its crucial importance in our changing climate through thematic comic strips. Through these cartoons and comics the project aims to make permafrost science accessible to children, young people and the parents and teachers.

The project is funded by the International Permafrost Association and chaired by Frédéric Bouchard with a core group of young researchers from Canada, Germany, Sweden and Portugal providing the scientific information. The cartoons, one of which we feature today, are all designed by young artists.

Today’s image of the week highlights some of the ways that thawing permafrost will affect the lives of indigenous peoples in the Urals who live by reindeer-herding. This cartoon was based on the study of Istomin and Habeck (2016), and effectively provides an accessible way to communicate the key findings of this study to a general audience.

 

Edited by Sophie Berger

 


“A Frozen-Ground Cartoon” Team:

Project Leader: Frédéric Bouchard
Collaborators: Bethany Deshpande, Michael Fritz, Julie Malenfant-Lepage, Alexandre Nieuwendam, Michel Paquette, Ashley Rudy, Matthias B. Siewert, Ylva Sjöberg, Audrey Veillette, Stefanie Weege, Jon Harbor


Image of The Week – 100 years of Endurance!

Image of The Week – 100 years of Endurance!

The 30th August 2016 marks 100 years since the successful rescue of all (human) member of Shackleton’s Endurance crew from their temporary camp on Elephant Island (see map). Nearly a year prior to their rescue they were forced to abandon their ship – The Endurance – after it became stuck in thick drifting sea ice, known as pack ice, trying to navigate the Weddell Sea. It was the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration and was well documented by Frank Hurley, the expedition’s photographer. Our post today brings you some of the stunning images he took over 100 years ago!


The Endurance

Ernest Shackleton. Image Credit: Scot Polar Research Institute.

Ernest Shackleton. Image Credit: Scot Polar Research Institute.

In August 1914 Ernest Shackleton set out with a crew of 27 men (chosen from over 5000 who applied!) on the ship Endurance, as part of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. Their mission was to complete the first land crossing of Antarctica – from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea via the South Pole. Unfortunately disaster struck the Endurance in January 1915 when it became stuck fast in pack ice in the Weddell sea. True to the ships name the crew were forced to endure a very long journey home!

Our image this week shows the Endurance finally sinking through that pack ice into the depths on the ocean on the 21st November 1915, after being stuck in the pack ice for 10 months. Luckily, due to the fact it had been interned for such a long time, no members of the crew were on-board and much of the cargo had been removed, leaving the crew with food supplies and three small whaling boats to continue their journey.

Men wanted for hazardous journey. Low wages, bitter cold, long hours of complete darkness. Safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in event of success.

E. Shackleton’s advertisement for his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (source: Watkins, 2012, p.1)

The long journey home!

Frank Hurley and Ernest Shackleton at camp, first published in the United States in Ernest Shackleton's book, South, in 1919., via Wikimedia Commons

Frank Hurley (expedition photographer) and Ernest Shackleton at camp. First published in the United States in Ernest Shackleton’s book, South, in 1919., via Wikimedia Commons.

On the 27th October 1915, shortly before the Endurance sank, Shackleton had given the order to abandon ship. The crew started to march towards open ocean pulling two of the whaling boats filled with supplied behind them. After a few days it became apparent that it was too difficult to move and the crew established a camp on the ice floe, know as “Ocean Camp”. At their camp on the ice the ship’s crew slept in tents but the dogs were housed in “dog igloos”. From this position supplies (including three whaling boat) were retrieved from Endurance, before she finally sank in November 1915.

Over the next few months the crew attempted further relatively unsuccessful marches to the ocean before eventually establish “Patience Camp” in December 1915 on the ice – which would be their home for more than three months. By April 1916 the ice floe had broken up and all 28 men piled into their three boats to head for Elephant Island which they successfully reached 5 days later. However, their journey was not yet over!

Elephant island was very remote and uninhabited with no real possibility of rescue, especially considering it was the middle of the first world war and many ships capable of making the journey from England were occupied in battle. Realising they needed to find their own assistance Shackleton and a skeleton crew of 5 men set sail in one of the small whaling boats, The James Caird, for a perilous 1,500 km journey to South Georgia where there were known to be inhabited whaling stations. They eventually landed safely on South Georgia a few weeks later, only to discovered they were on the opposite side of the island to the whaling station they had been counting on for help. Shackleton and 2 of his men set off on a 36-hour trek to reach Stromness whaling station, where they were eventually able to raise the alarm on the 20th May 1916. First they rescued the remainder of the 5 man crew from the other side of the South Georgia and then set out to rescue the remaining crew Elephant Island.

The launching of the James Caird from Elephant Island, in an attempt to reach the South Georgia. Photo Credit: Frank Hurley, the expedition’s photographer via Wikimedia Commons.

It wasn’t until  the 30th August 1916 that the men on Elephant Island were rescued, having spent over 4 months stranded there during the harsh Antarctic winter. Shackleton had made four attempts to rescue them, starting on 22nd May 1916, just three days after he had arrived in Stromness, however, each attempt had been thwarted by sea ice surrounding the island. Finally Shackleton managed to reach his crew in Yelcho, a small steam tug loaned to him by the Chilean government. He found all the men in a bad condition but alive, sadly the same cannot be said of the 69 dogs. Some of which died from ill health and many of which were eaten by the crew to survive those first months stranded on the ice.

A timeline and map showing the journey of the Endurance crew. Image credit: Luca Ferrario, DensityDesign Research Lab. CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

A timeline and map showing the journey of the Endurance crew. [Image credit: Luca Ferrario, DensityDesign Research Lab, via Wikimedia Commons.]

Where is The Endurance now?

Good question! There is a plan afoot to use Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) to dive down to the sea floor and try to locate and film the remains of the Endurance, no firm details of the current state of this expedition seem to have been released yet, but it may be worth keeping your eyes on their twitter feed @IceProjectShack.

It still happens today!

On Christmas Day 2013 the Russian vessel the M.V. Akademik Shokalskiy got stuck in pack ice while returning from East Antarctica with a crew of scientists, media, and students onboard. Everyone was eventually rescued safely by collegues from China and Australia – unlike Shackleton’s era there is now a lot more support when people get into difficulty in Antarctica. However, a photographer onboard, Andrew Peacock noted that:

We have learned from nature, as humankind always does, that it’s possible to be caught by an unexpected and not predicted situation.

It seems that while the likelihood of rescue has improved over the past century, that we mere mortals are still at the command of nature!

Further Reading

Edited by Sophie Berger